Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
A high PRS is associated with 2.6 to 6.9 times increased risk for developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) relative to a person not in the high-risk category. The data is based on populations of African, European, East Asian, and Hispanic/Latino descent. Information is insufficient or not available for populations of other descent. For participants with a high PRS, recommendations include:
- Risk factor counseling: physical activity, body mass index, diet
- For adults and children 12 and older:
- Assess for symptoms such as polyuria and weight change.
- Consider a biochemical screen with HbA1c or fasting glucose.
- Consider Metformin and/or medical nutrition therapy consultation if HbA1c or fasting glucose are elevated.
Positive Clinical Factors
The GIRA report identifies participants with any of the following risk factors:
- Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2).
- Demographics include non-European ancestry and age >45 years.
- Lab tests include HDL (<35 mg/dl), Triglycerides (>250 mg/dl), HbA1C ≥ 5.7%.
- Diagnoses include hypertension, PCOS (females only), and gestational diabetes (females only).
- Family history (first-degree relative with Type II DM).
- Physical inactivity.
For participants with ≥1 clinical risk factor, the GIRA report recommends considering screening for Type 2 DM in overweight/obese adults and in all adults > 45 years.