Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

High PRS

A high PRS is associated with 2.6 to 6.9 times increased risk for developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) relative to a person not in the high-risk category. The data is based on populations of African, European, East Asian, and Hispanic/Latino descent. Information is insufficient or not available for populations of other descent. For participants with a high PRS, recommendations include:

  • Risk factor counseling: physical activity, body mass index, diet
  • For adults and children 12 and older:
    • Assess for symptoms such as polyuria and weight change.
    • Consider a biochemical screen with HbA1c or fasting glucose.
    • Consider Metformin and/or medical nutrition therapy consultation if HbA1c or fasting glucose are elevated.

Positive Clinical Factors

The GIRA report identifies participants with any of the following risk factors:

  • Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2).
  • Demographics include non-European ancestry and age >45 years.
  • Lab tests include HDL (<35 mg/dl), Triglycerides (>250 mg/dl), HbA1C ≥ 5.7%.
  • Diagnoses include hypertension, PCOS (females only), and gestational diabetes (females only).
  • Family history (first-degree relative with Type II DM).
  • Physical inactivity.

For participants with ≥1 clinical risk factor, the GIRA report recommends considering screening for Type 2 DM in overweight/obese adults and in all adults > 45 years.