A Study to Analyze Leg Dexterity


About this study

This study aims to establish the clinical feasibility and utility of using the Leg Dexterity test as an objective measure of recovery of neuromuscular control after unilateral ACL injury or ACLr across multiple leading sports rehabilitation centers.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Controls:
    • The study subjects must be between the ages of 16—60.
    • The study subjects must read and speak English.
  • Patients recovering from non-contact ACL injury or ACLr:
    • Included surgical interventions:
      • First surgical treatment for ACL.
      • Only unilateral ACL reconstruction by a hamstring, patella tendon, or quadriceps tendon auto-graft for a post- traumatic ACL reconstruction.
      • Injury resulted from non-contact injury mechanism. As is common, injuries may include disruption of the meniscus, articular cartilage, or subchondral bone. Surgery may include meniscus repair or partial meniscectomy as this is a common associated finding in the setting of a noncontact ACL injury in young athletes.
    • Included physical therapy interventions: Therapist will follow standard, typical protocol for postsurgical recovery for non-contact ACL injuries. The typical physical therapy interventions include, but are not limited to:
      • Bracing.
      • Cryotherapy.
      • Joint and soft tissue mobility techniques (active, active assisted and resisted).
      • Muscle-strength training (isometric, isotonic, isokinetic; concentric, eccentric; open kinetic chain, closed kinetic chain).
      • Gait re-education.
      • Training of neuromuscular function/balance and proprioception.
    • Between the ages of 16—60 yrs. of age.
    • Cleared for testing by treating surgeon starting 2 months post-injury if no surgery was done, or starting 2 months post-surgery if surgery was done.
    • Testing at the time of clearance for sport or within 1 year of such clearance. There are reports that return-to-sport takes up to 2 years.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • For controls:
    • Study subjects will be excluded if any of the following are present:
      • Neurological disorders.
      • History of previous upper or lower extremity injury that has resulted in any persistent pain and/or inability to participate in sport (greater than 3 weeks) during the last year, unless specifically cleared for sport by their relevant physician or surgeon.
      • Any current upper or lower extremity injury that causes pain and/or inability to participate in sport.
      • Ligamentous laxity in the upper/lower extremities.
      • Presence of any medical condition that would impair the subjects ability to perform the tasks proposed in this study.
    • Study subjects will be excluded if a self-reported medical condition would impair the subjects ability to perform the tasks proposed in this study.
  • For patients recovering from non-contact ACL injury or ACLr:
    • Excluded surgical interventions:
      • Multiple anatomical reconstructive surgeries that included the ACL, complete meniscectomy, collateral ligaments, patellar structures and ligaments, concomitant hip or ankle injury, or bilateral knee injury. Other concomitant surgery with the ACL reconstruction.
    • Excluded physical therapy interventions:
      • Some less common rehabilitation strategies that may impact sensorimotor or nerve function, and are therefore excluded. These include:
        • Electrotherapy (i.e., ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), muscle stimulation).
        • Complimentary therapies such as reflexology, acupuncture, etc.
  • Less than 2 months post-injury if no surgery was done, or less than 2 months post-surgery if surgery was done.
  • Cleared for sport for more than 1 year.
  • Moderate to pain or swelling: Pain > 3/10 VSA. Swelling > 25% of contralateral circumference at the joint line.
  • Not cleared for testing by treating surgeon, regardless of time post-injury or post-surgery.
  • Not full weight bearing on involved leg.
  • Inability to flex between 60 and 120 degrees to achieve testing position.
  • Knee ROM < 80% of uninvolved side.
  • Isokinetic testing of hip and knee strength < 50% of uninvolved side (manually or with dynamometer, as done usually.
  • Lack of explicit approval by treatment physician is an exclusion criterion.

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Kenton Kaufman, Ph.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cecilia Streff

(507) 422-5103


More information


Publications are currently not available

Mayo Clinic Footer