Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Closure at the Time of Endovascular Cardiac Electronic Device Implantation


About this study

Participants enrolled in this study will have been diagnosed with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and have been scheduled to have a cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) such as a pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implanted. A PFO is a condition when there is a hole in the septum (the wall separating the right and left sides) of the heart. The purpose of this study is to determine whether closing the PFO with the GORE® Cardioform Septal Occluder in people with an endocardial device leads reduces the risk of recurrent stroke or imaging-confirmed transient ischemic attack (TIA) compared to not closing the PFO.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • A clinical indication for a transvenous pacemaker or defibrillator implantation,
  • Must have a documented PFO determined from Transthoracic Echocardiogram (TTE) echocardiographic agitated saline contrast study that is determined to be feasible for transcatheter closure.
  • The GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder should only be used in subjects whose vasculature is adequate to accommodate a 10 Fr delivery sheath (or 12 Fr delivery sheath when a guidewire is used).
  • All subjects must be able to undergo standardized neurocognitive testing, and dementia/mental status examination screening.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects with a survival expectancy of less than one year.
  • Subjects with an atrial septal defect or shunt that clinically requires closure for hemodynamic or other purposes.
  • Absence of a clinical indication for a transvenous CIED system.
  • Subjects with any clinical indication mandating anticoagulation.
  • Subjects with previously placed CIED devices will be excluded.
  • Unable to take anti-platelet medications such as aspirin or clopidogrel (Plavix).
  • With anatomy where the GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder size or position would interfere with other intracardiac or intravascular structures, such as cardiac valves or pulmonary veins.
  • With active endocarditis, or other infections producing bacteremia, or with known sepsis within one month of planned implantation, or any other infection that cannot be treated successfully prior to device placement.
  • With known intracardiac thrombi.
  • Known pregnancy at the time of automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) implant

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Samuel Asirvatham, M.D.

Closed for enrollment

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