Safety and Efficacy of Investigational Anti-Influenza Immune Plasma in Treating Influenza

Overview

About this study

This randomized, open-label, multicenter phase 2 trial will assess the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-influenza plasma in subjects with influenza A or B. Hospitalized subjects with influenza A or B that have either a low oxygen level or a high respiratory rate will be eligible for study participation. This study will enroll adults, children and pregnant women.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of influenza A or B prior to enrollment
  • Hospitalization for signs and symptoms of influenza (decision for hospitalization will be up to the individual treating clinician).
  • Abnormal respiratory status, defined as room air saturation of oxygen (SaO2) less than 93% or tachypnea (respiratory rate above normal)
  • Agree to the storage of specimens and data
  • ABO compatible plasma available on site or available within 24 hours after randomization with activity against locally circulating strains of influenza

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Receipt of non-licensed treatment for influenza within the last 2 weeks (or plans to receive any time during the study). This does not include licensed drugs at nonapproved doses, off-label indications, or drugs available under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA).
  • Symptoms or signs of the acute influenza-like illness have occurred for more than 7 days prior to enrollment.
  • History of severe allergic reaction to blood products (as judged by the investigator).
  • Medical conditions for which receipt of 500 mL volume (or 8 mL/kg for pediatric patients) may be dangerous to the subject (e.g. decompensated congestive heart failure [CHF], etc.)
  • Clinical suspicion that etiology of illness is primarily bacterial

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Philippe Bauer, M.D., Ph.D.

Closed for enrollment

More information

Publications

  • Influenza A (H5N1) virus with an amino acid substitution in neuraminidase conferring high-level resistance to oseltamivir was isolated from two of eight Vietnamese patients during oseltamivir treatment. Both patients died of influenza A (H5N1) virus infection, despite early initiation of treatment in one patient. Surviving patients had rapid declines in the viral load to undetectable levels during treatment. These observations suggest that resistance can emerge during the currently recommended regimen of oseltamivir therapy and may be associated with clinical deterioration and that the strategy for the treatment of influenza A (H5N1) virus infection should include additional antiviral agents. Read More on PubMed
  • The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 40 influenza virus hemagglutinin genes of the H3 serotype from mammalian and avian species and 9 genes of the H4 serotype were compared, and their evolutionary relationships were evaluated. From these relationships, the differences in the mutational characteristics of the viral hemagglutinin in different hosts were examined and the RNA sequence changes that occurred during the generation of the progenitor of the 1968 human pandemic strain were examined. Three major lineages were defined: one containing only equine virus isolates; one containing only avian virus isolates; and one containing avian, swine, and human virus isolates. The human pandemic strain of 1968 was derived from an avian virus most similar to those isolated from ducks in Asia, and the transfer of this virus to humans probably occurred in 1965. Since then, the human viruses have diverged from this progenitor, with the accumulation of approximately 7.9 nucleotide and 3.4 amino acid substitutions per year. Reconstruction of the sequence of the hypothetical ancestral strain at the avian-human transition indicated that only 6 amino acids in the mature hemagglutinin molecule were changed during the transition between an avian virus strain and a human pandemic strain. All of these changes are located in regions of the molecule known to affect receptor binding and antigenicity. Unlike the human H3 influenza virus strains, the equine virus isolates have no close relatives in other species and appear to have diverged from the avian viruses much earlier than did the human virus strains. Mutations were estimated to have accumulated in the equine virus lineage at approximately 3.1 nucleotides and 0.8 amino acids per year. Four swine virus isolates in the analysis each appeared to have been introduced into pigs independently, with two derived from human viruses and two from avian viruses. A comparison of the coding and noncoding mutations in the mammalian and avian lineages showed a significantly lower ratio of coding to total nucleotide changes in the avian viruses. Additionally, the avian virus lineages of both the H3 and H4 serotypes, but not the mammalian virus lineages, showed significantly greater conservation of amino acid sequence in the internal branches of the phylogenetic tree than in the terminal branches. The small number of amino acid differences between the avian viruses and the progenitor of the 1968 pandemic strain and the great phenotypic stability of the avian viruses suggest that strains similar to the progenitor strain will continue to circulate in birds and will be available for reintroduction into humans. Read More on PubMed
  • "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. Read More on PubMed

Study Results Summary

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Supplemental Study Information

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CLS-20145048

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