A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Antithrombotics to Treat Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients


About this study

This is a randomized, open label, adaptive platform trial to compare the effectiveness of antithrombotic strategies for prevention of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 positive inpatients

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • ≥ 18 years of age.
  • Hospitalized for COVID-19*.
  • Enrolled within 72 hours of hospital admittance or 72 hours of positive COVID test.
  • Expected to require hospitalization for > 72 hours.

*  It is strongly recommended to confirm SARSCoV2 with a positive microbiological test prior to randomization. At centers where there is delay in confirming the diagnosis, a sufficiently high clinical suspicion is sufficient to proceed with randomization as long as confirmation is expected
within 24 hours.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Imminent death.
  • Requirement for chronic mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy prior to hospitalization.
  • Pregnancy.

Eligibility last updated 10/18/21. Questions regarding updates should be directed to the study team contact.


Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Leslie Padrnos, M.D.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

Amanda Palacios B.S.

(480) 342-6236

More information


  • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that has spread rapidly all over the world. More and more reports highlight the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19. Our study aims to identify in-hospital VTE risk and bleeding risk in COVID-19 patients. Read More on PubMed
  • Platelets represent a potential therapeutic target for improved clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Read More on PubMed
  • COVID-19 is characterized by vascular inflammation and thrombosis, including elevations in P-selectin, a mediator of inflammation released by endothelial cells. We tested the effect of P-selectin inhibition on biomarkers of thrombosis and inflammation in patients with COVID-19. Hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or crizanlizumab, a P-selectin inhibitor, in a double-blind fashion. Crizanlizumab reduced P-selectin levels by 89%. Crizanlizumab increased D-dimer levels by 77% and decreased prothrombin fragment. There were no significant differences between crizanlizumab and placebo for clinical endpoints. Crizanlizumab was well tolerated. Crizanlizumab may induce thrombolysis in the setting of COVID-19. (Crizanlizumab for Treating COVID-19 Vasculopathy [CRITICAL]; NCT04435184). Read More on PubMed
  • Higher D-dimer is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and venous thromboembolism. In the general population, D-dimer and other thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers are higher among Black individuals, who also have higher risk of these conditions compared to White people. Read More on PubMed
  • COVID-19 can lead to multiorgan failure. Dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, has significant protective benefits for the heart and kidney. We aimed to see whether this agent might provide organ protection in patients with COVID-19 by affecting processes dysregulated during acute illness. Read More on PubMed
  • Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. Read More on PubMed
  • Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. Read More on PubMed
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to systemic coagulation activation and thrombotic complications. Read More on PubMed
  • There is increasing recognition of a prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Post-mortem examination can provide important mechanistic insights. Read More on PubMed
  • Given incomplete data reporting by race, we used data on COVID-19 cases and deaths in U.S. counties to describe racial disparities in COVID-19 disease and death and associated determinants. Read More on PubMed
  • COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilisation and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Reports on the incidence of thrombotic complications are however not available. Read More on PubMed
  • Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated D-dimer levels. Early reports describe high venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rates, but data are limited. This multicenter retrospective study describes the rate and severity of hemostatic and thrombotic complications of 400 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients (144 critically ill) primarily receiving standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. Coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared between patients with and without coagulation-associated complications. Multivariable logistic models examined the utility of these markers in predicting coagulation-associated complications, critical illness, and death. The radiographically confirmed VTE rate was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.3), and the overall thrombotic complication rate was 9.5% (95% CI, 6.8-12.8). The overall and major bleeding rates were 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9-7.3) and 2.3% (95% CI, 1.0-4.2), respectively. In the critically ill, radiographically confirmed VTE and major bleeding rates were 7.6% (95% CI, 3.9-13.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.4-10.7), respectively. Elevated D-dimer at initial presentation was predictive of coagulation-associated complications during hospitalization (D-dimer >2500 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio [OR] for thrombosis, 6.79 [95% CI, 2.39-19.30]; adjusted OR for bleeding, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.01-12.66]), critical illness, and death. Additional markers at initial presentation predictive of thrombosis during hospitalization included platelet count >450 × 109/L (adjusted OR, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.27-9.97]), C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 mg/L (adjusted OR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.26-5.86]), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >40 mm/h (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.07-6.51]). ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than in those without. DIC, clinically relevant thrombocytopenia, and reduced fibrinogen were rare and were associated with significant bleeding manifestations. Given the observed bleeding rates, randomized trials are needed to determine any potential benefit of intensified anticoagulant prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients. Read More on PubMed
  • Many reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have highlighted age- and sex-related differences in health outcomes. More information is needed about racial and ethnic differences in outcomes from Covid-19. Read More on PubMed
  • Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More on PubMed
  • A relatively high mortality of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is worrying, and the application of heparin in COVID-19 has been recommended by some expert consensus because of the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thromboembolism. However, its efficacy remains to be validated. Read More on PubMed
  • Understanding of the role of ethnicity and socioeconomic position in the risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. We investigated this in the UK Biobank study. Read More on PubMed
  • Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Read More on PubMed
  • : International and UK data suggest that Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are at increased risk of infection and death from COVID-19. We aimed to explore the risk of death in minority ethnic groups in England using data reported by NHS England. : We used NHS data on patients with a positive COVID-19 test who died in hospitals in England published on 28th April, with deaths by ethnicity available from 1st March 2020 up to 5pm on 21 April 2020. We undertook indirect standardisation of these data (using the whole population of England as the reference) to produce ethnic specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age and geographical region. : The largest total number of deaths in minority ethnic groups were Indian (492 deaths) and Black Caribbean (460 deaths) groups. Adjusting for region we found a lower risk of death for White Irish (SMR 0.52; 95%CIs 0.45-0.60) and White British ethnic groups (0.88; 95%CIs 0.86-0.0.89), but increased risk of death for Black African (3.24; 95%CIs 2.90-3.62), Black Caribbean (2.21; 95%CIs 2.02-2.41), Pakistani (3.29; 95%CIs 2.96-3.64), Bangladeshi (2.41; 95%CIs 1.98-2.91) and Indian (1.70; 95%CIs 1.56-1.85) minority ethnic groups. Our analysis adds to the evidence that BAME people are at increased risk of death from COVID-19 even after adjusting for geographical region, but was limited by the lack of data on deaths outside of NHS settings and ethnicity denominator data being based on the 2011 census. Despite these limitations, we believe there is an urgent need to take action to reduce the risk of death for BAME groups and better understand why some ethnic groups experience greater risk. Actions that are likely to reduce these inequities include ensuring adequate income protection, reducing occupational risks, reducing barriers in accessing healthcare and providing culturally and linguistically appropriate public health communications. Read More on PubMed
  • An association between increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) events and influenza A H1N1 (H1N1) was noted in the first 10 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An empirical systemic anticoagulation protocol (heparin intravenous infusion) was initiated when autopsy of patients with severe hypoxemia confirmed multiple primary pulmonary thrombi and emboli. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between H1N1 and VTE events and to assess the efficacy of empirical systemic heparin anticoagulation in preventing VTE and death in H1N1 severe ARDS patients. Read More on PubMed
  • Thrombosis is a common consequence of infection that is associated with poor patient outcome. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which infection-associated thrombosis is induced, maintained and resolved are poorly understood, as is the contribution thrombosis makes to host control of infection and pathogen spread. The key difference between infection-associated thrombosis and thrombosis in other circumstances is a stronger inflammation-mediated component caused by the presence of the pathogen and its products. This inflammation triggers the activation of platelets, which may accompany damage to the endothelium, resulting in fibrin deposition and thrombus formation. This process is often referred to as thrombo-inflammation. Strikingly, despite its clinical importance and despite thrombi being induced to many different pathogens, it is still unclear whether the mechanisms underlying this process are conserved and how we can best understand this process. This review summarizes thrombosis in a variety of models, including single antigen models such as LPS, and infection models using viruses and bacteria. We provide a specific focus on Typhimurium infection as a useful model to address all stages of thrombosis during infection. We highlight how this model has helped us identify how thrombosis can appear in different organs at different times and thrombi be detected for weeks after infection in one site, yet largely be resolved within 24 h in another. Furthermore, we discuss the observation that thrombi induced to Typhimurium are largely devoid of bacteria. Finally, we discuss the value of different therapeutic approaches to target thrombosis, the potential importance of timing in their administration and the necessity to maintain normal hemostasis after treatment. Improvements in our understanding of these processes can be used to better target infection-mediated mechanisms of thrombosis. Read More on PubMed
  • Acute myocardial infarction can be triggered by acute respiratory infections. Previous studies have suggested an association between influenza and acute myocardial infarction, but those studies used nonspecific measures of influenza infection or study designs that were susceptible to bias. We evaluated the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarction. Read More on PubMed
  • Viral infections are associated with coagulation disorders. All aspects of the coagulation cascade, primary hemostasis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis, can be affected. As a consequence, thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemorrhage, or both, may occur. Investigation of coagulation disorders as a consequence of different viral infections have not been performed uniformly. Common pathways are therefore not fully elucidated. In many severe viral infections there is no treatment other than supportive measures. A better understanding of the pathophysiology behind the association of viral infections and coagulation disorders is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies. This is of special importance in case of severe complications, such as those seen in hemorrhagic viral infections, the incidence of which is increasing worldwide. To date, only a few promising targets have been discovered, meaning the implementation in a clinical context is still hampered. This review discusses non-hemorrhagic and hemorrhagic viruses for which sufficient data on the association with hemostasis and related clinical features is available. This will enable clinicians to interpret research data and place them into a perspective. Read More on PubMed
  • The association between respiratory infection and risk of heart attacks and strokes is well established. However, less evidence exists for an association between respiratory infection and venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this article, we describe the associations between respiratory infection and VTE. Read More on PubMed
  • A novel H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, and rapidly reached pandemic proportions. We report a retrospective observational case study of pathologic findings in 8 patients with fatal novel H1N1 infection at the University of Michigan Health Systems (Ann Arbor) compared with 8 age-, sex-, body mass index-, and treatment-matched control subjects. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in acute and organizing phases affected all patients with influenza and was accompanied by acute bronchopneumonia in 6 patients. Organizing DAD with established fibrosis was present in 1 patient with preexisting granulomatous lung disease. Only 50% of control subjects had DAD. Peripheral pulmonary vascular thrombosis occurred in 5 of 8 patients with influenza and 3 of 8 control subjects. Cytophagocytosis was seen in all influenza-related cases. The autopsy findings in our patients with novel H1N1 influenza resemble other influenza virus infections with the exception of prominent thrombosis and hemophagocytosis. The possibility of hemophagocytic syndrome should be investigated in severely ill patients with H1N1 infection. Read More on PubMed
  • Acute infection increases the risk of arterial cardiovascular events, but effects on venous thromboembolic disease are less well established. Our aim was to investigate whether acute infections transiently increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. Read More on PubMed
  • To evaluate the haematological findings of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Read More on PubMed

Mayo Clinic Footer