A Study to Assess Therapeutic Hypothermia to Cool Injured Legs in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome


About this study

The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate whether early treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), along with neuromuscular blockade (NMB) to prevent shivering, will be beneficial to patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • All patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years old.
  • Endotracheal tube or tracheostomy in place and mechanically ventilated for ≤ 7 days.
  • Admitted to a participating ICU.
  • Radiologic evidence of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates not fully explained by pleural  effusions, atelectasis, or hydrostatic pulmonary edema  
  • P/F ratio < 200 with PEEP ≥ 8 cm H2O; If ABG values are not available, the P/F ratio may be inferred from SpO2 values as long as following conditions are met:  
    • SpO2 values are 80-96%;
    • SpO2 is measured ≥10 min after any change in FIO2;  
    • PEEP is ≥ 8 cm H2O;
    • The pulse oximeter waveform tracing is adequate;
    • The qualifying inferred P/F ratio is confirmed 1-6h after initial determination.
  • Access to an LAR to provide consent.  
  • Criteria 3 AND 4 must be met within 48h of enrollment and randomization, not be fully  explained by hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and must have occurred within 7 days onset  of a condition associated with ARDS.
  • Patients may be enrolled and decision about randomization delayed if all criteria other than P/F ratio < 200 are met and then randomized if and when the P/F ratio < 200 (as long as this occurs within 48h of randomization).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Missed ARDS window (> 48hrs).  
  • Missed NMB window: (> 12 hrs).
  • Missed mechanical ventilation window (> 7 days).
  • Refractory hypotension (> 0.2 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine or equivalent dose for 6 h or longer).
  • Core temperature < 35.5°C while not receiving CRRT.
  • Patient is unable to give consent and no Legally authorized representative is available.
  • Significant, active bleeding (>3u blood products and/or surgical/IR intervention).  
  • Platelets <10K/mm^3 (uncorrected).
  • Active hematologic malignancy.  
  • Skin process that precludes cooling device.  
  • Moribund, not likelyto survive 72 hours.  
  • Pre-morbid condition makes it unlikely that patient will survive 28 days.  
  • Do Not Resuscitate status. 
  • Not likely to remain intubated for ≥ 48h.  
  • Physician of record unwilling to participate.  
  • Severe underlying lung disease:  
    • On home O2;
    • On BIPAP (except for OSA);  
    • Prior lung transplantation.
  • Pregnant.
  • BMI > 50 kg/m2.  
  • Known NYHA class IV heart disease.  
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome past 30 days (MI, unstable angina).  
  • Cardiac arrest within 30 days of enrollment.  
  • Burns over > 20% of the body surface.  
  • Severe chronic liver disease (Child-Pugh score 12-15).  
  • Previously randomized in CHILL study.





Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Lioudmila Karnatovskaia, M.D.

Closed-enrolling by invitation

What is this? (?)
Not open to everyone who meets the eligibility criteria, but only those invited to participate by the study team.

Contact information:

Lioudmila Karnatovskaia M.D.

(904) 953-2000


More information


  • Febrile-range hyperthermia worsens and hypothermia mitigates lung injury, and temperature dependence of lung injury is blunted by inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Of the two predominant p38 isoforms, p38α is proinflammatory and p38β is cytoprotective. Here, we analyzed the temperature dependence of p38 MAPK activation, substrate interaction, and tertiary structure. Incubating HeLa cells at 39.5 °C stimulated modest p38 activation, but did not alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced p38 activation. In kinase assays containing activated p38α and MAPK-activated kinase-2 (MK2), MK2 phosphorylation was 14.5-fold greater at 39.5 °C than at 33 °C. By comparison, we observed only 3.1- and 1.9-fold differences for activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1α (STAT1α) and a 7.7-fold difference for p38β phosphorylation of MK2. The temperature dependence of p38α:substrate binding affinity, as measured by surface plasmon resonance, paralleled substrate phosphorylation. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS (HDX-MS) of p38α performed at 33, 37, and 39.5 °C indicated temperature-dependent conformational changes in an α helix near the common docking and glutamate:aspartate substrate-binding domains at the known binding site for MK2. In contrast, HDX-MS analysis of p38β did not detect significant temperature-dependent conformational changes in this region. We observed no conformational changes in the catalytic domain of either isoform and no corresponding temperature dependence in the C-terminal p38α-interacting region of MK2. Because MK2 participates in the pathogenesis of lung injury, the observed changes in the structure and function of proinflammatory p38α may contribute to the temperature dependence of acute lung injury. Read More on PubMed
  • The benefits of early continuous neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who are receiving mechanical ventilation remain unclear. Read More on PubMed
  • Prior studies suggest hypothermia may be beneficial in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but cooling causes shivering and increases metabolism. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of performing a randomized clinical trial of hypothermia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving treatment with neuromuscular blockade because they cannot shiver. Read More on PubMed
  • We hypothesized that the ventilator-related causes of lung injury may be unified in a single variable: the mechanical power. We assessed whether the mechanical power measured by the pressure-volume loops can be computed from its components: tidal volume (TV)/driving pressure (∆P aw), flow, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and respiratory rate (RR). If so, the relative contributions of each variable to the mechanical power can be estimated. Read More on PubMed
  • Breath stacking dyssynchrony generates higher tidal volumes than intended, potentially increasing lung injury risk in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Lack of validated criteria to quantify breath stacking dyssynchrony contributes to its under-recognition. This study evaluates performance of novel, objective criteria for quantifying breath stacking dyssynchrony (BREATHE criteria) compared to existing definitions and tests if neuromuscular blockade eliminates high-volume breath stacking dyssynchrony in ARDS. Read More on PubMed
  • This article discusses recently published articles reporting the incidence and outcome of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is a difficult task since there is a marked variability regarding the methodology of the few, large epidemiological, and observational studies on ARDS. Read More on PubMed
  • Lung injury activates multiple pro-inflammatory pathways, including neutrophils, epithelial, and endothelial injury, and coagulation factors leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low-dose methylprednisolone therapy (MPT) improved oxygenation and ventilation in early pediatric ARDS without altering duration of mechanical ventilation or mortality. We evaluated the effects of MPT on biomarkers of endothelial [Ang-2 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)] or epithelial [soluble receptor for activated glycation end products (sRAGE)] injury, neutrophil activation [matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8)], and coagulation (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1). Read More on PubMed
  • ARDS is an important clinical problem. The definition of ARDS requires testing of arterial blood gas to define the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (Pao2/Fio2 ratio). However, many patients with ARDS do not undergo blood gas measurement, which may result in underdiagnosis of the condition. As a consequence, a method for estimating Pao2 on the basis of noninvasive measurements is desirable. Read More on PubMed
  • Previous studies have revealed that clinically relevant changes in temperature modify clinically relevant gene expression profiles through transcriptional regulation. Temperature dependence of post-transcriptional regulation, specifically, through expression of miRNAs has been less studied. We comprehensively analyzed the effect of 24 h exposure to 32°C or 39.5°C on miRNA expression profile in primary cultured human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs) and its impact on expression of a targeted protein, protein kinase C α (PKCα). Using microarray, and solution hybridization-based nCounter assays, with confirmation by quantitative RT-PCR, we found significant temperature-dependent changes in expression level of only five mature human miRNAs, representing only 1% of detected miRNAs. Four of these five miRNAs are the less abundant passenger (star) strands. They exhibited a similar pattern of increased expression at 32°C and reduced expression at 39.5°C relative to 37°C. As PKCα mRNA has multiple potential binding sites for three of these miRNAs, we analyzed PKCα protein expression in HEK 293T cells and hSAECs. PKCα protein levels were lowest at 32°C and highest at 39.5°C and specific miRNA inhibitors reduced these effects. Finally, we analyzed cell-cycle progression in hSAECs and found 32°C cells exhibited the greatest G1 to S transition, a process known to be inhibited by PKCα, and the effect was mitigated by specific miRNA inhibitors. These results demonstrate that exposure to clinically relevant hypothermia or hyperthermia modifies expression of a narrow subset of miRNAs and impacts expression of at least one signaling protein involved in multiple important cellular processes. Read More on PubMed
  • Our study aimed to determine the effect of mild hypothermia (MHT) on the expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in lung tissue with acute lung injury. The animals were randomly divided into control, model and mild hypothermia groups. Read More on PubMed
  • Targeted temperature management (TTM) may improve respiratory mechanics and lung inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on animal and limited human studies. We aimed to assess the pulmonary effects of TTM in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest. Retrospective review of consecutive cardiac arrest cases occurring out of hospital or within 24 hours of hospital admission (2002-2012). Those receiving TTM (n=44) were compared with those who did not (n=42), but required mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 4 days following the arrest. There were no between-group differences in age, gender, body mass index, APACHE II, or fluid balance during the study period. The TTM group had lower ejection fraction, Glasgow Coma Score, and more frequent use of paralytics. Matched data analyses (change at day 4 compared with baseline of the individual subject) showed favorable, but not statistically significant trends in respiratory mechanics endpoints (airway pressure, compliance, tidal volume, and PaO2/FiO2) in the TTM group. The PaCO2 decreased significantly more in the TTM group, as compared with controls (-12 vs. -5 mmHg, p=0.02). For clinical outcomes, the TTM group consistently, although not significantly, did better in survival (59% vs. 43%) and hospital length of stay (12 vs. 15 days). The MV duration and Cerebral Performance Category score on discharge were significantly lower in the TTM group (7.3 vs. 10.7 days, p=0.04 and 3.2 vs. 4, p=0.01). This small retrospective cohort suggests that the effect of TTM ranges from equivalent to favorable, compared with controls, for the specific respiratory and clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest. Read More on PubMed
  • The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. Read More on PubMed
  • Previous trials involving patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have failed to show a beneficial effect of prone positioning during mechanical ventilatory support on outcomes. We evaluated the effect of early application of prone positioning on outcomes in patients with severe ARDS. Read More on PubMed
  • This study had 2 objectives: (1) to quantify the metabolic response to physical cooling in febrile patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and (2) to provide proof for the hypothesis that the efficiency of external cooling and the subsequent shivering response are influenced by site and temperature of surface cooling pads. Read More on PubMed
  • Hyperthermia has been shown to confer cytoprotection and to augment apoptosis in different experimental models. We analyzed the mechanisms of both effects in the same mouse lung epithelial (MLE) cell line (MLE15). Exposing MLE15 cells to heat shock (HS; 42°C, 2 h) or febrile-range hyperthermia (39.5°C) concurrent with activation of the death receptors, TNF receptor 1 or Fas, greatly accelerated apoptosis, which was detectable within 30 minutes and was associated with accelerated activation of caspase-2, -8, and -10, and the proapoptotic protein, Bcl2-interacting domain (Bid). Caspase-3 activation and cell death were partially blocked by inhibitors targeting all three initiator caspases. Cells expressing the IκB superrepessor were more susceptible than wild-type cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis at 37°C, but HS and febrile-range hyperthermia still increased apoptosis in these cells. Delaying HS for 3 hours after TNF-α treatment abrogated its proapoptotic effect in wild-type cells, but not in IκB superrepressor-expression cells, suggesting that TNF-α stimulates delayed resistance to the proapoptotic effects of HS through an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Pre-exposure to 2-hour HS beginning 6 to16 hours before TNF-α treatment or Fas activation reduced apoptosis in MLE15 cells. The antiapoptotic effects of HS pretreatment were reduced in TNF-α-treated embryonic fibroblasts from heat shock factor-1 (HSF1)-deficient mice, but the proapoptotic effects of concurrent HS were preserved. Thus, depending on the temperature and timing relative to death receptor activation, hyperthermia can exert pro- and antiapoptotic effects through distinct mechanisms. Read More on PubMed
  • Our objective was to revise the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using a conceptual model incorporating reliability and validity, and a novel iterative approach with formal evaluation of the definition. Read More on PubMed
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte; PMN)-driven lung injury that is associated with fever and heat-stroke, and involves approximately 40% mortality. In murine models of acute lung injury (ALI), febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) enhanced PMN accumulation, vascular permeability, and epithelial injury, in part by augmenting pulmonary cysteine-x-cysteine (CXC) chemokine expression. To determine whether FRH increases chemokine responsiveness within the lung, we used in vivo and in vitro models that bypass the endogenous generation of chemokines. We measured PMN transalveolar migration (TAM) in mice after intratracheal instillations of the human CXC chemokine IL-8 in vivo, and of IL-8-directed PMN transendothelial migration (TEM) through human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers in vitro. Pre-exposure to FRH increased in vivo IL-8-directed PMN TAM by 23.5-fold and in vitro TEM by 7-fold. Adoptive PMN transfer demonstrated that enhanced PMN TAM required both PMN donors and recipients to be exposed to FRH, suggesting interdependent effects on PMNs and endothelium. FRH exposure caused the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in lung homogenates and circulating PMNs, with an associated increase in HSP27 phosphorylation and stress-fiber formation. The inhibition of these signaling pathways with U0126 and SB203580 blocked the effects of FRH on PMN extravasation in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, these results (1) demonstrate that FRH augments chemokine-directed PMN extravasation through direct effects on endothelium and PMNs, (2) identify ERK and p38 signaling pathways in the effect, and (3) underscore the complex effects of physiologic temperature change on innate immune function and its potential consequences for lung injury. Read More on PubMed
  • To determine the effect of induced hypothermia on bacterial growth, lung injury, and mitochondrial function in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumosepsis. Read More on PubMed
  • Fever commonly occurs in acute lung injury (ALI) and ALI occurs in 25% of victims of heat stroke. We have shown in mouse models of ALI that exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH), 39.5°C, increases non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. In this study we studied the direct effects of FRH on endothelial barrier integrity using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). We analysed the effect of exposure to culture temperatures between 38.5° and 41°C with and without tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) up to 250 U/mL for 6-24 h. We found that exposure to 2.5-250 U/mL TNF-α increased HMVEC-L permeability by 4.1-15.8-fold at 37°C. Exposure to 39.5°C alone caused variable, modest, lot-specific increases in HMVEC-L permeability, however raising culture temperature to 39.5°C in the presence of TNF-α increased permeability an additional 1.6-4.5-fold compared with cells incubated with the same TNF-α concentration at 37°C. Permeability occurred without measurable cytotoxicity and was reversible upon removal of TNF-α and reduction in temperature to 37°C. Exposure to 39.5°C or TNF-α each stimulated rapid activation of p38 and ERK but the effects were not additive. Treatment with inhibitors of ERK (U0126) or p38 (SB203580) each reduced TNF-α-induced permeability in 39.5°C monolayers to levels in 37°C cells, but did not alter TNF-α-induced permeability in the 37°C cells. These results demonstrate that FRH directly increases paracellular pathway opening through a process that requires ERK and p38 MAPKs. A better understanding of this mechanism may provide new understanding about how fever may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALI and provide new therapeutic targets to improve clinical outcomes. Read More on PubMed
  • We have shown that febrile-range hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in mice exposed to inhaled LPS and is associated with increased TNF-α receptor activity, suppression of NF-κB activity in vitro, and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in vivo. We hypothesized that hyperthermia enhances lung injury and mortality in vivo by a mechanism dependent on TNF receptor signaling. To test this, we exposed mice lacking the TNF-receptor family members TNFR1/R2 or Fas (TNFR1/R2(-/-) and lpr) to inhaled LPS with or without febrile-range hyperthermia. For comparison, we studied mice lacking IL-1 receptor activity (IL-1R(-/-)) to determine the role of inflammation on the effect of hyperthermia in vivo. TNFR1/R2(-/-) and lpr mice were protected from augmented alveolar permeability and mortality associated with hyperthermia, whereas IL-1R(-/-) mice were susceptible to augmented alveolar permeability but protected from mortality associated with hyperthermia. Hyperthermia decreased pulmonary concentrations of TNF-α and keratinocyte-derived chemokine after LPS in C57BL/6 mice and did not affect pulmonary inflammation but enhanced circulating markers of oxidative injury and nitric oxide metabolites. The data suggest that hyperthermia enhances lung injury by a mechanism that requires death receptor activity and is not directly associated with changes in inflammation mediated by hyperthermia. In addition, hyperthermia appears to enhance mortality by generating a systemic inflammatory response and not by a mechanism directly associated with respiratory failure. Finally, we observed that exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia converts a modest, survivable model of lung injury into a fatal syndrome associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Read More on PubMed
  • Paraquat intoxication induces acute lung injury and numerous fatalities have been reported. The mechanism of toxic effect of paraquat is oxidative injury and inflammation. Therapeutic hypothermia has been known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on paraquat intoxication. Read More on PubMed
  • In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neuromuscular blocking agents may improve oxygenation and decrease ventilator-induced lung injury but may also cause muscle weakness. We evaluated clinical outcomes after 2 days of therapy with neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with early, severe ARDS. Read More on PubMed
  • Mechanical ventilation causes lung injury in premature infants. Hypothermia may protect against and hyperthermia may augment lung injury. We tested the effects of hypo- and hyperthermia on ventilation induced acute lung injury in preterm lambs. Read More on PubMed
  • Mild hypothermia has become an important treatment for ischemic brain injury. However, the role of mild hypothermia in air embolism-induced lung injury has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with mild hypothermia before and synchronous with air infusion can attenuate acute lung injury induced by air embolism. Read More on PubMed
  • Fever is common in critically ill patients and is associated with worse clinical outcomes, including increased intensive care unit mortality. In animal models, febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) worsens acute lung injury, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. We hypothesized that FRH augments the response of the alveolar epithelium to TNF-alpha receptor family signaling. We found that FRH augmented LPS-induced lung injury and increased LPS-induced mortality in mice. At 24 h, animals exposed to hyperthermia and LPS had significant increases in alveolar permeability without changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung tissue as compared with animals exposed to LPS alone. The increase in alveolar permeability was associated with an increase in alveolar epithelial apoptosis and was attenuated by caspase inhibition with zVAD.fmk. At 48 h, the animals exposed to hyperthermia and LPS had an enhanced lung inflammatory response. In murine lung epithelial cell lines (MLE-15, LA-4) and in primary type II alveolar epithelial cells, FRH enhanced apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha but not Fas ligand. The increase in apoptosis was caspase-8 dependent and associated with suppression of NF-kappaB activity. The FRH-associated NF-kappaB suppression was not associated with persistence of IkappaB-alpha, suggesting that FRH-mediated suppression of NF-kappaB occurs by means other than alteration of IkappaB-alpha kinetics. These data show for the first time that FRH promotes lung injury in part by increasing lung epithelial apoptosis. The enhanced apoptotic response might relate to FRH-mediated suppression of NF-kappaB activity in the alveolar epithelium with a resultant increase in susceptibility to TNF-alpha-mediated cell death. Read More on PubMed
  • In previous animal studies, induction of therapeutic hypothermia (HT) in hemorrhagic shock (HS) had beneficial effects on the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters and on the survival. However, the effect of induced HT on acute lung injury (ALI) in HS has not been investigated. We sought to determine the effects of HT on ALI in HS. Read More on PubMed
  • To determine if levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), a marker of alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury, differ in patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema and acute lung injury (ALI) and are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with ALI. Read More on PubMed
  • To determine whether baseline plasma levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a novel marker of alveolar type I cell injury, are associated with the severity and outcomes of acute lung injury, and whether plasma RAGE levels are affected by lower tidal volume ventilation. Read More on PubMed
  • The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. Read More on PubMed
  • Hypothermia may be effective for endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. In most studies, hypothermia was induced before the development of neutrophilic inflammation, which would be clinically irrelevant. We investigated whether hypothermia induced after the onset of such neutrophilic inflammation reduces acute lung injury. Read More on PubMed
  • Toxic smoke inhalation causes acute lung injury. We studied the efficacy and therapeutic window of whole-body hypothermia in rats with wood smoke-induced acute lung injury. Read More on PubMed
  • We previously demonstrated that exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) accelerates pathogen clearance and increases survival in murine experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae peritonitis. However, FRH accelerates lethal lung injury in a mouse model of pulmonary oxygen toxicity, suggesting that the lung may be particularly susceptible to injurious effects of FRH. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in contrast with the salutary effect of FRH in Gram-negative peritonitis, FRH would be detrimental in multilobar Gram-negative pneumonia. Using a conscious, temperature-clamped mouse model and intratracheal inoculation with K. pneumoniae Caroli strain, we showed that FRH tended to reduce survival despite reducing the 3 day-postinoculation pulmonary pathogen burden by 400-fold. We showed that antibiotic treatment rescued the euthermic mice, but did not reduce lethality in the FRH mice. Using an intratracheal bacterial endotoxin LPS challenge model, we found that the reduced survival in FRH-treated mice was accompanied by increased pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, enhanced pulmonary accumulation of neutrophils, increased levels of IL-1beta, MIP-2/CXCL213, GM-CSF, and KC/CXCL1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and bronchiolar epithelial necrosis. These results suggest that FRH enhances innate host defense against infection, in part, by augmenting polymorphonuclear cell delivery to the site of infection. The ultimate effect of FRH is determined by the balance between accelerated pathogen clearance and collateral tissue injury, which is determined, in part, by the site of infection. Read More on PubMed
  • The pathophysiology of the acute phase of acid-induced lung injury (AILI) has been elucidated. However, once acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) develops, the mortality rate remains high and there is, as yet, no effective therapy. There are reports that application of mild hypothermia is an effective treatment for ARDS. In this study, we hypothesize that mild hypothermia inhibits activation of neutrophils and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in an injured lung. We studied the effects of mild hypothermia on the expression of ICAM-1 and the accumulation of neutrophils after AILI in the rat. Read More on PubMed
  • Febrile-range hyperthermia (FRH) improves survival in experimental infections by accelerating pathogen clearance, but may also increase collateral tissue injury. We hypothesized that FRH would worsen the outcome of inflammation stimulated by a non-replicating agonist and tested this hypothesis in a murine model of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Using a conscious, temperature-controlled mouse model, we showed that maintaining a core temperature at FRH (39 degrees C to 40 degrees C) rather than at euthermic levels (36.5 degrees C to 37 degrees C) during hyperoxia exposure accelerated lethal pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, reduced the inspired oxygen threshold for lethality, induced expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, and expanded the circulating neutrophil pool. In these same mice, FRH augmented pulmonary expression of the ELR(+) CXC chemokines, KC and LPS-induced CXC chemokine, enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, and changed the histological pattern of lung injury to a neutrophilic interstitial pneumonitis. Immunoblockade of CXC receptor-2 abrogated neutrophil recruitment, reduced pulmonary vascular injury, and delayed death. These combined data demonstrate that FRH may enlist distinct mediators and effector cells to profoundly shift the host response to a defined injurious stimulus, in part by augmenting delivery of neutrophils to sites of inflammation, such as may occur in infections. In certain conditions, such as in the hyperoxic lung, this process may be deleterious. Read More on PubMed
  • Hypothermia in humans and animals is known to decrease the number and function of circulating neutrophils. Because an activation of circulating neutrophils and their sequestration into the lung are important pathogenetic phenomena in endotoxin-associated lung injury, we conjectured that hypothermia could prevent this type of lung injury. Read More on PubMed
  • Alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary edema induced by mechanical ventilation are partly dependent on cardiac output. Because cardiac output is low during hypothermia, we hypothesized that hypothermia may protect against these vascular manifestations of ventilator-induced lung injury. Twenty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either normothermia (37 +/- 1 degrees C)-injurious ventilation (NT; n = 10), hypothermia (27 +/- 1 degrees C)- injurious ventilation (HT; n = 10), or nonventilated control ( n = 7). The two ventilated groups were subjected to injurious ventilation of peak airway pressure 30 cm H(2)O with zero end-expiratory pressure for 20 min. Compared with the NT group, the hemorrhage/congestion score of the lung (11.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 4.7 +/- 1.6; p < 0.001) and the ratio of wet/dry lung weight (6.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.1; p = 0.046) of the HT group were lower. Compared with the NT group, protein concentration (3,471 +/- 1,985 micro g/ml vs. 1,374 +/- 726 micro g/ml; p = 0.003) and lactate dehydrogenase level (0.43 +/- 0.22 U/ml vs. 0.18 +/- 0.1 U/ml; p = 0.046) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the HT group were lower. Whereas pressure-volume curve was shifted to the right in the NT group after injurious ventilation, it was not shifted in the HT group. In conclusion, hypothermia in rats attenuated the degrees of vascular manifestations and alveolar epithelial injuries induced by injurious ventilation, and preserved the mechanical properties of the lung. Read More on PubMed
  • Traditional approaches to mechanical ventilation use tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml per kilogram of body weight and may cause stretch-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We therefore conducted a trial to determine whether ventilation with lower tidal volumes would improve the clinical outcomes in these patients. Read More on PubMed
  • The goal of this study was to determine the changes that occur in surfactant-associated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and serum of patients at risk for ARDS and during the course of ARDS. We found that the concentrations of SP-A and SP-B were low in the BAL of patients at risk for ARDS before the onset of clinically defined lung injury, whereas the concentration of SP-D was normal. In patients with established ARDS, BAL SP-A and SP-B concentrations were low during the entire 14-d observation period, but the median SP-D concentrations remained in the normal range. Immunoreactive SP-A and SP-D were not increased in the serum of patients at risk for ARDS, but both increased after the onset of ARDS to a maximum on Day 3 and remained elevated for as long as 14 d. The BAL SP-A concentrations were significantly lower in at-risk patients who developed ARDS, and no patient with a BAL SP-A concentration greater than 1.2 microg/ml developed ARDS. On Days 1 and 3 of ARDS, the BAL SP-D concentration was significantly lower in patients who died, and the BAL SP-D concentration was significantly related to the PI(O(2))/FI(O(2)) ratio. Thus, surfactant protein abnormalities occur before and after the onset of ARDS, and the responses of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D differ in important ways. The BAL SP-A and SP-D measurements can be used to classify patients as high or low risk for progression to ARDS and/or death after the onset of ARDS. Strategies to increase these surfactant proteins in the lungs of patients with ARDS could be useful to modify the onset or the course of ARDS. Read More on PubMed
  • Hyperthermic critically ill patients are commonly cooled to reduce their oxygen consumption (VO2). However, no previous studies in febrile humans have measured VO2 during cooling. We cooled 12 febrile, critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients while measuring VO2 and CO2 production (VCO2) by analysis of inspired and expired gases. All patients were mechanically ventilated for hypoxemic, hypercapneic, or shock-related respiratory failure and had a mean APACHE II score of 22.4 +/- 7.7. As temperature was reduced from 39.4 +/- 0.8 to 37.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C, VO2 decreased from 359.0 +/- 65.0 to 295.1 +/- 57.3 ml/min (p < 0.01) and VCO2 decreased from 303.6 +/- 43.6 to 243.5 +/- 37.3 ml/min (p < 0.01). The respiratory quotient (RQ) did not change significantly, and calculated energy expenditure decreased from 2,481 +/- 426 to 1,990 +/- 33 kcal/day (p < 0.01). In 7 patients with right heart catheters, cardiac output decreased from 8.4 +/- 3.2 to 6.5 +/- 1.8 L/min (p < 0.01) as the oxygen extraction fraction also tended to decrease from a mean of 28.2 +/- 6.8 to 23.4 +/- 4.7% (p = 0.12) during cooling. Accordingly, cooling the febrile patient unloads the cardiorespiratory system and, in situations of limited oxygen delivery or hypoxemic respiratory failure, may thus facilitate resuscitation and minimize the potential for hypoxic tissue injury. Read More on PubMed
  • To test the hypothesis that treatment with hypothermia affects the course of overwhelming acute respiratory failure associated with sepsis. Read More on PubMed

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