A Study to Determine Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Hesitancy in the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Serving Area


About this study

Reducing the HPV-associated cancer burden in rural populations will require research to better understand vaccine hesitancy to guide development of novel interventions. We propose to identify HPV vaccine-hesitant populations in our catchment area and characterize key factors that influence hesitancy in our substantially rural population where HPV vaccine uptake is unacceptably low. To this end, we will pursue the following specific aims:

Aim 1. Conduct a population-based survey of parents of HPV vaccine eligible age children in the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Midwest catchment area population to identify those with high vaccine hesitancy and assess the association of hesitancy with on-time HPV vaccine uptake (by age 13) overall and by urban/rural status, area-level socioeconomic indicators, and clinical practice site.

Aim 2. Conduct theoretically-grounded focus groups with parents of HPV-vaccine-eligible-aged children to evaluate psychosocial and communication factors that influence parental attitudes toward HPV vaccination in populations with low rates of uptake and expected high HPV vaccine hesitancy (per Aim 1).

Aim 3. Conduct interviews with clinicians, nurses, and administrators at clinical practices with low HPV vaccination initiation rates serving patients with vaccine hesitancy to assess clinician knowledge, attitudes, and behavior relevant to HPV vaccine hesitancy (per Aims 1 and 2).

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria - Aim 1

  • Parents that are 18 years or older with children aged between 13-18. 
  • Parents who have the decision making authority for their child.
  • Reside in the Midwest Mayo Clinic Cancer Center catchment area (either of the 12 sites listed).
  • Able to speak and understand English.

Exclusion Criteria - Aim 1 

  • Parents who do not have decision-making authority for their child.
  • Not able to speak and understand English.
  • Not residing in the Midwest Mayo Clinic Center catchment area.

Inclusion Criteria- Aim 2

  • Parents must be 18 years old
  • Able to speak and understand English
  • Have decision-making authority over there child
  • Have access to an internet-enabled electronic device 
  • Have an e-mail address 

Exclusion Criteria- Aim 2

  • Parents not under the age of 18
  • Not able to speak and understand English
  • Do not have decision-making authority over there child 
  • Do not have access to an internet-enabled electronic device

Inclusion Criteria - Aim 3:

  • Must be clinical staff (physicians, nurse-practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, reception staff, and administrators).
  • Must work in the Midwest Mayo Clinic Center catchment area. 

Exclusion Criteria - Aim 3:

  • Not clinical staff.
  • Does not work in Midwest Mayo Clinic Center catchment sites. 

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Lila Rutten, Ph.D.

Closed-enrolling by invitation

What is this? (?)
Not open to everyone who meets the eligibility criteria, but only those invited to participate by the study team.

Contact information:

Tyler Oakland

(507) 422-5600


More information


Publications are currently not available

Study Results Summary

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Supplemental Study Information

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