Evaluation of Patient Outcomes From the Kidney Allograft Outcomes AlloSure® Registry

Overview

About this study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety and efficacy outcomes in renal transplant recipients in whom post-transplant care is managed using AlloSure®. AlloSure® is a non-invasive test to measure donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA). The AlloSure test is intended to assess the probability of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients with clinical suspicion of rejection and to inform clinical decision-making regarding the necessity of renal biopsy in such patients at least 2 weeks post-transplant in conjunction with standard clinical assessment. Amendment 1 (A1): Is an observational study to develop and validate the clinical use of KidneyCare®.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

KOAR Inclusion Criteria:

  • Medicare-covered (Part B) renal transplant recipients selected by their providers to receive AlloSure testing as part of their practical care beginning by 2 months post-transplantation.
  • Patient's health care provider adopts and intends to apply the center's AlloSure Routine Testing Schedule as part of the information used to manage the patient.
  • Subjects willing to provide written informed consent to participate. 

KOAR Exclusion Criteria: 

  • Renal transplant recipients without Medicare (Part B) coverage. 

Exclusions for AlloSure® Intended Use:

Specimens from patients for whom any of the following are true will not be tested:

  • Recipients of transplanted organs other than kidney.
  • Recipients of a transplant from a monozygotic (identical).
  • Recipients of a bone marrow transplant.
  • Recipients who are pregnant.
  • Recipients who are under the age of 18.
  • Recipient who are less than 14 days post-transplant.

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Jacksonville, Fla.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Hani Wadei, M.D.

Contact us for the latest status

Contact information:

FL General Clinical Studies Unit (GCSU)

(904) 953-2255

More information

Publications

  • Histologic analysis of the allograft biopsy specimen is the standard method used to differentiate rejection from other injury in kidney transplants. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a noninvasive test of allograft injury that may enable more frequent, quantitative, and safer assessment of allograft rejection and injury status. To investigate this possibility, we prospectively collected blood specimens at scheduled intervals and at the time of clinically indicated biopsies. In 102 kidney recipients, we measured plasma levels of dd-cfDNA and correlated the levels with allograft rejection status ascertained by histology in 107 biopsy specimens. The dd-cfDNA level discriminated between biopsy specimens showing any rejection (T cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and controls (no rejection histologically), <0.001 (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61 to 0.86). Positive and negative predictive values for active rejection at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 61% and 84%, respectively. The AUC for discriminating ABMR from samples without ABMR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Positive and negative predictive values for ABMR at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 44% and 96%, respectively. Median dd-cfDNA was 2.9% (ABMR), 1.2% (T cell-mediated types ≥IB), 0.2% (T cell-mediated type IA), and 0.3% in controls (=0.05 for T cell-mediated rejection types ≥IB versus controls). Thus, dd-cfDNA may be used to assess allograft rejection and injury; dd-cfDNA levels <1% reflect the absence of active rejection (T cell-mediated type ≥IB or ABMR) and levels >1% indicate a probability of active rejection. Read More on PubMed
  • The use of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a biomarker in transplant recipients offers advantages over invasive tissue biopsy as a quantitative measure for detection of transplant rejection and immunosuppression optimization. However, the fraction of donor-derived cfDNA (dd-cfDNA) in transplant recipient plasma is low and challenging to quantify. Previously reported methods to measure dd-cfDNA require donor and recipient genotyping, which is impractical in clinical settings and adds cost. We developed a targeted next-generation sequencing assay that uses 266 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to accurately quantify dd-cfDNA in transplant recipients without separate genotyping. Analytical performance of the assay was characterized and validated using 1117 samples comprising the National Institute for Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle human reference genome, independently validated reference materials, and clinical samples. The assay quantifies the fraction of dd-cfDNA in both unrelated and related donor-recipient pairs. The dd-cfDNA assay can reliably measure dd-cfDNA (limit of blank, 0.10%; limit of detection, 0.16%; limit of quantification, 0.20%) across the linear quantifiable range (0.2% to 16%) with across-run CVs of 6.8%. Precision was also evaluated for independently processed clinical sample replicates and is similar to across-run precision. Application of the assay to clinical samples from heart transplant recipients demonstrated increased levels of dd-cfDNA in patients with biopsy-confirmed rejection and decreased levels of dd-cfDNA after successful rejection treatment. This noninvasive clinical-grade sequencing assay can be completed within 3 days, providing the practical turnaround time preferred for transplanted organ surveillance. Read More on PubMed

Study Results Summary

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Supplemental Study Information

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CLS-20488753

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