Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.See eligibility criteria
General Exclusion Criteria:
- Subjects who participate in regular structured exercise more than 2 hours and 30 min per week or 1hour and 15 min of vigorous exercise per week.
- Unwilling to comply with the follow-up schedule.
- Inability or refusal to give informed consent by the patient or a legally authorized representative.
- Subject who takes multivitamins containing vitamin B3 derivatives in a dose > 200 mg/day.
- Participation in another investigational drug study within 1 year of treatment.
Laboratory Exclusion Criteria:
- Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 15 ng/ml.
- Serum phosphorus > 5 mg/dL.
- Serum alkaline phosphatase 50% above normal limit.
- Serum aspartate transaminase 50% above normal limit.
- Serum calcium > 10.5 mg/dL.
- Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/min.
- Poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus (HbA1c>8).
Clinical History Exclusion Criteria:
- Confirmed diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in use of insulin.
- Subjects presenting systolic BP > 180 mmHg or a diastolic BP > 90 mmHg on initial evaluation.
- Previous diagnosis of liver disease.
- Previous chronic kidney disease stage IV.
- Malabsorption syndrome.
- Hypo- or Hyperparathyroidism.
- Cushing’s syndrome.
- Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- Congestive heart failure.
- Musculoskeletal disorder.
- History of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Previous gastric bypass surgery.
- Clinical history of osteoporotic fracture (spine, hip, or distal forearm) within past year.
- Extreme of BMI (≤ 18.5 kg/m2 or ≥ 40 kg/m2).
Medication Exclusion Criteria:
- History of methotrexate therapy.
- History of denosumab therapy.
- History of oral or inhaled corticosteroid use > 3 months.
- Current use of anticoagulants in general.
- Anticonvulsant therapy (within previous year).
- Sodium fluoride (any history).
- Pharmacological doses of thyroid hormone (causing decline of TSH below normal).
- Treatment within the past 3 years with bisphosphonates.
- Treatment within the past 3 years with parathyroid hormone.
- Treatment within the past 3 years with calcitonin.
- Treatment within the past 3 years with estrogen.
- Treatment within the past 3 years with selective estrogen receptor modulator.