A Study Comparing Proton and Photon Radiation Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients

Overview

About this study

The purpose of this study is to determine if prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy as compared to IMRT experience improved QOL (validated EPIC instrument measuring bowel, urinary, and sexual QOL).

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Localized prostate cancer, as confirmed by staging with PSA, biopsy, Gleason score, DRE, and clinical stage.
  • Low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk disease, based on NCCN Prostate Cancer Risk Group Guidelines and Joint AUA/ASTRO/SUO Guidelines.
  • If patient has high-risk disease, nuclear medicine bone imaging must be performed to document the absence of overt metastatic disease in bones.
  • Candidate for definitive prostate radiotherapy (either IMRT or proton).
  • If patient is to be treated with IMRT, all treatment must be planned with IMRT; if patient is to be treated with protons, all treatment must be planned with protons (including pelvic nodes if treated).
  • No previous prostate cancer treatment, with the exception of short-term (≤ 6 months) ADT according to NCCN guidelines.
  • Age 30-80 years old at the time of consent.
  • Life expectancy estimate (LEE) of ≥10 years.
  • ECOG/Zubrod Performance Status 0-2.
  • Non-English speaking patients may be enrolled.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Findings of metastatic disease (nodal or distant, N1 or M1).
  • Very low-risk or very high-risk prostate cancer based on NCCN Prostate Cancer Risk Group Guidelines and Joint AUA/ASTRO/SUO Guidelines.
  • Prior prostate surgical procedure, including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and GreenLight Laser Therapy.
  • History of invasive rectal malignancy or other pelvic malignancy, regardless of disease-free interval.
  • Active inflammatory bowel disease (i.e., patients requiring medical interventions or who are symptomatic) or documented history of inflammatory bowel disease requiring intervention.
  • Prior pelvic RT for any reason.
  • Documented lack of psychological ability or general health permitting completion of the study requirements and required follow-up.
  • Documented diminished capacity to understand the risks and benefits of participation in research and to autonomously provide informed consent.

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

La Crosse, Wis.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Abigail Stockham, M.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Mankato, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Ron Smith, M.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Jacksonville, Fla.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Katherine Tzou, M.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Chunhee Choo, M.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Eau Claire, Wis.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Sarah James, M.D., Ph.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Thomas Daniels, M.D.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

855-776-0015

More information

Publications

  • Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. However, sex disparities vary by cancer type. For example, thyroid cancer incidence rates are 3-fold higher in women than in men (21 vs 7 per 100,000 population), despite equivalent death rates (0.5 per 100,000 population), largely reflecting sex differences in the "epidemic of diagnosis." Over the past decade of available data, the overall cancer incidence rate (2004-2013) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2005-2014) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. From 1991 to 2014, the overall cancer death rate dropped 25%, translating to approximately 2,143,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the cancer death rate was 15% higher in blacks than in whites in 2014, increasing access to care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may expedite the narrowing racial gap; from 2010 to 2015, the proportion of blacks who were uninsured halved, from 21% to 11%, as it did for Hispanics (31% to 16%). Gains in coverage for traditionally underserved Americans will facilitate the broader application of existing cancer control knowledge across every segment of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Read More on PubMed
  • Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of cancer therapy. The recently established particle therapy with raster-scanning protons and carbon ions landmarks a new era in the field of high-precision cancer medicine. However, molecular mechanisms governing radiation induced intracellular signaling remain elusive. Here, we present the first comprehensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic study applying stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry to decipher cellular response to irradiation with X-rays, protons and carbon ions. At protein expression level limited alterations were observed 2 h post irradiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, 181 phosphorylation sites were found to be differentially regulated out of which 151 sites were not hitherto attributed to radiation response as revealed by crosscheck with the PhosphoSitePlus database.Radiation-induced phosphorylation of the p(S/T)Q motif was the prevailing regulation pattern affecting proteins involved in DNA damage response signaling. Because radiation doses were selected to produce same level of cell kill and DNA double-strand breakage for each radiation quality, DNA damage responsive phosphorylation sites were regulated to same extent. However, differential phosphorylation between radiation qualities was observed for 55 phosphorylation sites indicating the existence of distinct signaling circuitries induced by X-ray particle (proton/carbon) irradiation beyond the canonical DNA damage response. This unexpected finding was confirmed in targeted spike-in experiments using synthetic isotope labeled phosphopeptides. Herewith, we successfully validated uniform DNA damage response signaling coexisting with altered signaling involved in apoptosis and metabolic processes induced by X-ray and particle based treatments.In summary, the comprehensive insight into the radiation-induced phosphoproteome landscape is instructive for the design of functional studies aiming to decipher cellular signaling processes in response to radiotherapy, space radiation or ionizing radiation Further, our data will have a significant impact on the ongoing debate about patient treatment modalities. Read More on PubMed
  • To characterize the changes in the use of radiation therapy (RT), specifically proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT), among adult and pediatric patients over a 11-year period in a very large population of insured patients. Read More on PubMed
  • Numerous management options exist for patients with prostate cancer; however, recent trends and their influencing factors are not well described. Read More on PubMed
  • Track structures and resulting DNA damage in human cells have been simulated for hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and neon ions with 0.25-256 MeV/u energy. The needed ion interaction cross sections have been scaled from those of hydrogen; Barkas scaling formula has been refined, extending its applicability down to about 10 keV/u, and validated against established stopping power data. Linear energy transfer (LET) has been scored from energy deposits in a cell nucleus; for very low-energy ions, it has been defined locally within thin slabs. The simulations show that protons and helium ions induce more DNA damage than heavier ions do at the same LET. With increasing LET, less DNA strand breaks are formed per unit dose, but due to their clustering the yields of double-strand breaks (DSB) increase, up to saturation around 300 keV/μm. Also individual DSB tend to cluster; DSB clusters peak around 500 keV/μm, while DSB multiplicities per cluster steadily increase with LET. Remarkably similar to patterns known from cell survival studies, LET-dependencies with pronounced maxima around 100-200 keV/μm occur on nanometre scale for sites that contain one or more DSB, and on micrometre scale for megabasepair-sized DNA fragments. Read More on PubMed
  • To report clinical outcomes in patients treated with image guided proton therapy (PT) for localized prostate cancer. Read More on PubMed
  • The number of cancer survivors continues to increase because of both advances in early detection and treatment and the aging and growth of the population. For the public health community to better serve these survivors, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute collaborate to estimate the number of current and future cancer survivors using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries. In addition, current treatment patterns for the most prevalent cancer types are presented based on information in the National Cancer Data Base and treatment-related side effects are briefly described. More than 15.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2016, and this number is projected to reach more than 20 million by January 1, 2026. The 3 most prevalent cancers are prostate (3,306,760), colon and rectum (724,690), and melanoma (614,460) among males and breast (3,560,570), uterine corpus (757,190), and colon and rectum (727,350) among females. More than one-half (56%) of survivors were diagnosed within the past 10 years, and almost one-half (47%) are aged 70 years or older. People with a history of cancer have unique medical and psychosocial needs that require proactive assessment and management by primary care providers. Although there are a growing number of tools that can assist patients, caregivers, and clinicians in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship, further evidence-based resources are needed to optimize care. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:271-289. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Read More on PubMed
  • The comparative effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer that is detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains uncertain. Read More on PubMed
  • Many men with indolent prostate cancer often opt for radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy treatment for their disease. These men may experience considerable detriments of quality of life owing to sexual, urinary, and/or rectal toxic effects associated with these treatments. Without a better understanding of the mutable agents and predictors of treatment types, diffusion of expectant management among these men will be slow. Read More on PubMed
  • In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. Read More on PubMed
  • To report 5-year clinical outcomes of 3 prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Read More on PubMed
  • To investigate the impact of the 2 major DNA repair machineries on cellular survival in response to irradiation with the 2 types of ionizing radiation. Read More on PubMed
  • Proton beam therapy for prostate cancer has become a source of controversy in the urologic community, and the rapid dissemination and marketing of this technology has led to many patients inquiring about this therapy. Yet the complexity of the technology, the cost, and the conflicting messages in the literature have left many urologists ill equipped to counsel their patients regarding this option. This article reviews the basic science of the proton beam, examines the reasons for both the hype and the controversy surrounding this therapy, and, most importantly, examines the literature so that every urologist is able to comfortably discuss this option with inquiring patients. Read More on PubMed
  • This paper evaluates the reasons behind the rise in the use of proton beam for prostate cancer, the economics drivers behind it, and the evidence that exists to support it. It concludes that clinical outcome data underlying the notion that this is a superior treatment remains sparse and discusses what is needed to fill in the gaps. Read More on PubMed
  • The purpose of this analysis was to compare long-term urinary, bowel, and sexual function after radical prostatectomy or external-beam radiation therapy. Read More on PubMed
  • Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States. The initial treatment and subsequent monitoring of PCa patients places a large burden on U.S. health care systems. The objectives of this study were to estimate the total and disease-related per-patient lifetime costs using a phase-based model of cancer care for PCa patients enrolled in Medicare. Read More on PubMed
  • Although it is the most powerful predictor of early prostate cancer treatment-related complications and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes, most studies do not stratify results by baseline function. Further, reporting functional outcomes as averaged numerical results may obscure informatively disparate courses. Using levels of treatment-related dysfunction, we address these problems and present the final QOL outcomes of our prospective cohort study of patients with early prostate cancer. Read More on PubMed
  • The contrast in dose distribution between proton radiotherapy (RT) and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is unclear, particularly in regard to critical structures such as the rectum and bladder. Read More on PubMed
  • We sought to identify determinants of health-related quality of life after primary treatment of prostate cancer and to measure the effects of such determinants on satisfaction with the outcome of treatment in patients and their spouses or partners. Read More on PubMed
  • To compare intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT) with three-dimensional conformal proton therapy (3D-CPT) for early-stage prostate cancer, and explore the potential utility of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Read More on PubMed
  • Although extensive resources go to cancer care, national population-based data on the costs of such care at the patient level have been unavailable. Medicare payments subsequent to diagnosis of cancer for elderly enrollees with five common cancers were estimated using tumor registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program linked to Medicare claims from 1984 to 1990. The time between diagnosis and death was divided into four phases corresponding to the clinical course of solid tumors, average payments for each phase were estimated (including payments for services not related to cancer), then phase-specific payment data were aggregated. Average payments by phase varied among cancer sites, especially in the initial care phase, where payments were highest for lung and colorectal cancers ($17,500 in 1990 dollars) and lowest for female breast cancer ($8,913). Total Medicare payments from diagnosis to death were highest for persons with bladder cancer ($57,629) and lowest for those with lung cancer ($29,184). Low payments for persons with lung cancer corresponded to brief survival times. Persons diagnosed at earlier stages incurred higher total payments between diagnosis and death than those diagnosed at later stages, reflecting their longer survival. This implies that early detection may increase total Medicare expenditures by extending beneficiaries' lives. However, Medicare payments per year of survival were lower for earlier stages. Data on Medicare payments subsequent to diagnosis of cancer are useful for identifying the cost implications of differences in treatment patterns by demographic characteristics, geography, and delivery systems; comparing the financial impact of alternative therapies; evaluating the long-term cost impacts of screening and prevention programs; and risk-adjusting payments to health plans. Read More on PubMed
  • The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally. Read More on PubMed

Study Results Summary

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Supplemental Study Information

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CLS-20452035

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