Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.See eligibility criteria
- Heart Failure patients with a history of stable idiopathic dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy (>1 yr, with >/ =1 episode of congestive failure requiring hospitalization)
- New York Heart Association Class II and III symptoms
- No history of dangerous arrhythmia's
- Not pacemaker dependent
- Less than class II obesity (BMI =34.9)
- No or minimal smoking history (<15 pk years)
CHF patients with an ejection fraction of less than 40% will be included in the Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) group.
- All other CHF patients will be included in the Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) group.
Controls will consist of age, gender , and BMI matched subjects
- No history of cardiovascular related abnormalities (i.e. Hx of shortness of breath, chest discomfort, abnormal rest or exercise ECG)
- Non-obese (BMI 20-32)
- No or minimal smoking history (<15 pk yrs)
- Unable to engage in exercise testing due to existing comorbidities.