Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.See eligibility criteria
- Age 18 to 85 years old.
- Equal number of males and females.
- Participants recruited to three experimental groups:
- Class I-II heart failure patients;
- Class III-IV heart failure patients;
- Age, BMI and sex matched healthy control subjects.
- Pacemaker dependent.
- If they currently smoke.
- If they are allergic to the CT contrast material.
- If participating in an aim of the study in which an esophageal balloon catheter will be used, subjects will be excluded if:
- They are allergic to latex; or
- If they have a history of nose bleeds.