NIRS Predict Low Cardiac Output State in Neonates and Infants in Cardiac Surgery


  • Study type

  • Study IDs

  • Describes the nature of a clinical study. Types include:

    • Observational study — observes people and measures outcomes without affecting results.
    • Interventional study (clinical trial) — studies new tests, treatments, drugs, surgical procedures or devices.
    • Medical records research — uses historical information collected from medical records of large groups of people to study how diseases progress and which treatments and surgeries work best.
  • Site IRB
    • Rochester, Minnesota: 12-003690
    NCT ID: NCT01849120
    Sponsor Protocol Number: 12-003690

About this study

Neonates and infants that have cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for congenital heart disease are at great risk for experiencing life-threatening low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in the first 24 hours after surgery. The poor perfusion and inadequate oxygen delivery that occurs may result in multiple organ failure and death. It is LCOS that is responsible for the majority of early postoperative deaths in this population of neonates and infants. Improved pediatric probes placed in peripheral locations using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may permit continuous monitoring of venous saturations reflecting overall perfusion and oxygen balance in the tissues. Following parental or guardian consent, 30 neonates and infants scheduled to undergo surgery for congenital heart disease will be enrolled. At the end of surgery, four EQUANOX Advance 8004CB probes will be placed on the flank, lower extremities and the forehead. Continuous NIRS saturations will be monitored and stored for analysis. Point of care (POC) lactates will be obtained after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) every 2 hours for the first 24 hours postoperatively, then once at 48 hours. The association between NIRS oxygen saturation and POC lactate values will be assessed using mixed linear models taking into account the repeated measures design. Exploratory analyses will be performed to assess whether NIRS oxygen saturation is associated with outcomes such as days in ICU, adverse events and mortality.

The ability to use noninvasive, continuous monitoring for overall perfusion and cardiac output will allow better and earlier therapy for neonates and infants following cardiac surgery.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.

See eligibility criteria


  • pediatric patients 0-3 years of age
  • scheduled to undergo cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB) for repair of congenital heart defects


  • weight < 2 kg or > 20 kg
  • greater than 3 years of age
  • thrombosed femoral arteries
  • prior fasciotomies
  • currently on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact us for help.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

William Oliver, M.D.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

De Anna Haugen



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