Histology of Functional Density in Postmenopausal Breast


About this study

Increased mammographic density is recognized as an important risk factor for developing breast cancer, however, the underlying mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The investigators hypothesize that Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) can more accurately distinguish dense tissue on mammography which is at high risk from dense tissue at low risk by indicating cellular activity in dense tissue as radiotracer uptake (functional density) in the breast. In this pilot study, the investigators want to compare the histological characteristics of breast tissue in patients with who have similar density on mammography but different levels of functional density on MBI.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age 40 or older
  2. Be postmenopausal as defined as having at least 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea
  3. Screening mammogram performed at Mayo Clinic Rochester within one year prior to the current MBI study which demonstrates
    • Negative or benign assessment (BIRADs category 1-2)
    • No proliferative benign lesions (e.g. fibroadenomas) identified
    • Heterogeneously dense or extremely dense parenchyma (BIRADs density category 3 or 4)
  4. MBI performed less than one month prior to biopsy demonstrating either significant FD or photopenic FD.

Exclusion criteria:

  1. Using any exogenous hormones (e.g., hormonal contraceptives, sex steroid hormones) or any estrogen receptor modulating drugs (e.g., tamoxifen, raloxifene) or any aromatase inhibitors within six months prior to study biopsy.
  2. Personal history of any cancer, except non-melanomatous skin cancer
  3. Current breast symptoms
  4. Breast implants
  5. Known allergy to local anesthetic.
  6. History of bleeding complications from prior interventions
  7. Current use of anticoagulants (e.g., Coumadin or other blood thinners)
  8. Major medical condition

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Carrie Hruska, Ph.D.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office


More information


Publications are currently not available

Mayo Clinic Footer