Publications

  1. Hou X, Watzlawik JO, Fiesel FC, Springer W. Autophagy in Parkinson's Disease. J Mol Biol. 2020 Feb 13 [Epub ahead of print]
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  2. Park JH, Burgess JD, Faroqi AH, DeMeo NN, Fiesel FC, Springer W, Delenclos M, McLean PJ. Alpha-synuclein-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is mediated via a sirtuin 3-dependent pathway. Mol Neurodegener. 2020 Jan 13; 15 (1):5
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  3. Luo S, Kang SS, Wang ZH, Liu X, Day JX, Wu Z, Peng J, Xiang D, Springer W, Ye K. Akt Phosphorylates NQO1 and Triggers its Degradation, Abolishing Its Antioxidative Activities in Parkinson's Disease. J Neurosci. 2019 Sep 11; 39 (37):7291-7305 Epub 2019 July 29
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  4. Lee SB, Kim JJ, Han SA, Fan Y, Guo LS, Aziz K, Nowsheen S, Kim SS, Park SY, Luo Q, Chung JO, Choi SI, Aziz A, Yin P, Tong SY, Fiesel FC, Springer W, Zhang JS, Lou Z. The AMPK-Parkin axis negatively regulates necroptosis and tumorigenesis by inhibiting the necrosome. Nat Cell Biol. 2019 Aug; 21 (8):940-951 Epub 2019 July 29
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  5. Hou X, Fiesel FC, Truban D, Castanedes Casey M, Lin WL, Soto AI, Tacik P, Rousseau LG, Diehl NN, Heckman MG, Lorenzo-Betancor O, Ferrer I, Arbelo JM, Steele JC, Farrer MJ, Cornejo-Olivas M, Torres L, Mata IF, Graff-Radford NR, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA, Murray ME, Dickson DW, Springer W. Age- and disease-dependent increase of the mitophagy marker phospho-ubiquitin in normal aging and Lewy body disease. Autophagy. 2018; 14 (8):1404-1418 Epub 2018 July 28
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  6. Fiesel FC, James ED, Hudec R, Springer W. Mitochondrial targeted HSP90 inhibitor Gamitrinib-TPP (G-TPP) induces PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Oncotarget. 2017 Dec 5; 8 (63):106233-106248 Epub 2017 Nov 06
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  7. Hauser DN, Mamais A, Conti MM, Primiani CT, Kumaran R, Dillman AA, Langston RG, Beilina A, Garcia JH, Diaz-Ruiz A, Bernier M, Fiesel FC, Hou X, Springer W, Li Y, de Cabo R, Cookson MR. Hexokinases link DJ-1 to the PINK1/parkin pathway. Mol Neurodegener. 2017 Sep 29; 12 (1):70 Epub 2017 Sept 29
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  8. Puschmann A, Fiesel FC, Caulfield TR, Hudec R, Ando M, Truban D, Hou X, Ogaki K, Heckman MG, James ED, Swanberg M, Jimenez-Ferrer I, Hansson O, Opala G, Siuda J, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Friedman A, Koziorowski D, Rudzinska-Bar M, Aasly JO, Lynch T, Mellick GD, Mohan M, Silburn PA, Sanotsky Y, Vilarino-Guell C, Farrer MJ, Chen L, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA, Springer W. Reply: Heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Brain 2017 Jun 1; 140 (6):e33
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  9. Paulus A, Akhtar S, Yousaf H, Manna A, Paulus SM, Bashir Y, Caulfield TR, Kuranz-Blake M, Chitta K, Wang X, Asmann Y, Hudec R, Springer W, Ailawadhi S, Chanan-Khan A. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia cells devoid of BTK(C481S) or CXCR4(WHIM-like) mutations acquire resistance to ibrutinib through upregulation of Bcl-2 and AKT resulting in vulnerability towards venetoclax or MK2206 treatment. Blood Cancer J. 2017 May 26; 7 (5):e565
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  10. Ando M, Fiesel FC, Hudec R, Caulfield TR, Ogaki K, Gorka-Skoczylas P, Koziorowski D, Friedman A, Chen L, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Bu G, Ross OA, Wszolek ZK, Springer W. The PINK1 p.I368N mutation affects protein stability and ubiquitin kinase activity. Mol Neurodegener. 2017 Apr 24; 12 (1):32
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  11. Lee Y, Stevens DA, Kang SU, Jiang H, Lee YI, Ko HS, Scarffe LA, Umanah GE, Kang H, Ham S, Kam TI, Allen K, Brahmachari S, Kim JW, Neifert S, Yun SP, Fiesel FC, Springer W, Dawson VL, Shin JH, Dawson TM. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival. Cell Rep. 2017 Jan 24; 18 (4):918-932
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  12. Truban D, Hou X, Caulfield TR, Fiesel FC, Springer W. PINK1, Parkin, and Mitochondrial Quality Control: What can we Learn about Parkinson's Disease Pathobiology? J Parkinsons Dis. 2017; 7 (1):13-29
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  13. Puschmann A, Fiesel FC, Caulfield TR, Hudec R, Ando M, Truban D, Hou X, Ogaki K, Heckman MG, James ED, Swanberg M, Jimenez-Ferrer I, Hansson O, Opala G, Siuda J, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Friedman A, Koziorowski D, Rudzinska-Bar M, Aasly JO, Lynch T, Mellick GD, Mohan M, Silburn PA, Sanotsky Y, Vilarino-Guell C, Farrer MJ, Chen L, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA, Springer W. Heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S increases risk of Parkinson's disease via a dominant-negative mechanism. Brain. 2017 Jan; 140 (1):98-117 Epub 2016 Nov 02
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  14. Fiesel FC, Hudec R, Springer W. Non-radioactive in vitro PINK1 Kinase Assays Using Ubiquitin or Parkin as Substrate. Bio Protoc. 2016 Oct 5; 6 (19)
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  15. Kim J, Fiesel FC, Belmonte KC, Hudec R, Wang WX, Kim C, Nelson PT, Springer W, Kim J. miR-27a and miR-27b regulate autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria by targeting PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Jul 26; 11 (1):55 Epub 2016 July 26
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  16. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, Adachi H, Adams CM, Adams PD, Adeli K, Adhihetty PJ, Adler SG, Agam G, Agarwal R, Aghi MK, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguilar PV, Aguirre-Ghiso J, Airoldi EM, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akporiaye ET, Al-Rubeai M, Albaiceta GM, Albanese C, Albani D, Albert ML, Aldudo J, Algul H, Alirezaei M, Alloza I, Almasan A, Almonte-Beceril M, Alnemri ES, Alonso C, Altan-Bonnet N, Altieri DC, Alvarez S, Alvarez-Erviti L, Alves S, Amadoro G, Amano A, Amantini C, Ambrosio S, Amelio I, Amer AO, Amessou M, Amon A, An Z, Anania FA, Andersen SU, Andley UP, Andreadi CK, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anel A, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Antonioli M, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Aquila S, Aquilano K, Araki K, Arama E, Aranda A, Araya J, Arcaro A, Arias E, Arimoto H, Ariosa AR, Armstrong JL, Arnould T, Arsov I, Asanuma K, Askanas V, Asselin E, Atarashi R, Atherton SS, Atkin JD, Attardi LD, Auberger P, Auburger G, Aurelian L, Autelli R, Avagliano L, Avantaggiati ML, Avrahami L, Awale S, Azad N, Bachetti T, Backer JM, Bae DH, Bae JS, Bae ON, Bae SH, Baehrecke EH, Baek SH, Baghdiguian S, Bagniewska-Zadworna A, Bai H, Bai J, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Balaji KN, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Balzan R, Banerjee R, Banhegyi G, Bao H, Barbeau B, Barrachina MD, Barreiro E, Bartel B, Bartolome A, Bassham DC, Bassi MT, Bast RC Jr, Basu A, Batista MT, Batoko H, Battino M, Bauckman K, Baumgarner BL, Bayer KU, Beale R, Beaulieu JF, Beck GR Jr, Becker C, Beckham JD, Bedard PA, Bednarski PJ, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Behrens GM, Behrns KE, Bejarano E, Belaid A, Belleudi F, Benard G, Berchem G, Bergamaschi D, Bergami M, Berkhout B, Berliocchi L, Bernard A, Bernard M, Bernassola F, Bertolotti A, Bess AS, Besteiro S, Bettuzzi S, Bhalla S, Bhattacharyya S, Bhutia SK, Biagosch C, Bianchi MW, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Billes V, Bincoletto C, Bingol B, Bird SW, Bitoun M, Bjedov I, Blackstone C, Blanc L, Blanco GA, Blomhoff HK, Boada-Romero E, Bockler S, Boes M, Boesze-Battaglia K, Boise LH, Bolino A, Boman A, Bonaldo P, Bordi M, et al, Chen CJ, Chen G, Chen P, Chen Q, Chen W, Cooper JM, Dong Z, Fan C, Fernandez-Zapico ME, Fiesel FC, Gao F, Ge L, Guo C, Harris AL, Her C, Hu D, Hu H, Hussain S, Jackson DJ, Jiang H, Jiang Y, Jimenez A, Kim HY, Kim MM, Kumar D, Kumar R, Lam T, Lee GM, Lee SJ, Leng S, Lerman LO, Lewis PA, Li F, Li K, Liu F, Liu Y, Lu Q, Ma J, Maeda A, Martin KR, McCormick C, Ryan KM, Sanchez AM, Schulze RJ, Sharma S, Shi Y, Sinha S, Sinicrope FA, Smith DR, Sood AK, Springer W, Stevens C, Subramaniam S, Tang D, Taylor A, Valverde AM, Venkatachalam K, Wang C, Wang C, Wang G, Wen X, Weyand CM, Xiao H, Xiao J, Xu Z, Yao X, Yu H, Yu JJ, Yu L, Yu Z, Yuan J, Zhang F, Zhang Y, Zhao X, Zhu W. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy. 2016; 12 (1):1-222
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  17. Ogaki K, Koga S, Heckman MG, Fiesel FC, Ando M, Labbe C, Lorenzo-Betancor O, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Walton RL, Strongosky AJ, Uitti RJ, McCarthy A, Lynch T, Siuda J, Opala G, Rudzinska M, Krygowska-Wajs A, Barcikowska M, Czyzewski K, Puschmann A, Nishioka K, Funayama M, Hattori N, Parisi JE, Petersen RC, Graff-Radford NR, Boeve BF, Springer W, Wszolek ZK, Dickson DW, Ross OA. Mitochondrial targeting sequence variants of the CHCHD2 gene are a risk for Lewy body disorders. Neurology. 2015 Dec 8; 85 (23):2016-25 Epub 2015 Nov 11
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  18. Shi J, Fung G, Deng H, Zhang J, Fiesel FC, Springer W, Li X, Luo H. NBR1 is dispensable for PARK2-mediated mitophagy regardless of the presence or absence of SQSTM1. Cell Death Dis. 2015 Oct 29; 6:e1943
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  19. Lorenzo-Betancor O, Ogaki K, Soto-Ortolaza AI, Labbe C, Walton RL, Strongosky AJ, van Gerpen JA, Uitti RJ, McLean PJ, Springer W, Siuda J, Opala G, Krygowska-Wajs A, Barcikowska M, Czyzewski K, McCarthy A, Lynch T, Puschmann A, Rektorova I, Sanotsky Y, Vilarino-Guell C, Farrer MJ, Ferman TJ, Boeve BF, Petersen RC, Parisi JE, Graff-Radford NR, Dickson DW, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA. DNAJC13 p.Asn855Ser mutation screening in Parkinson's disease and pathologically confirmed Lewy body disease patients. Eur J Neurol. 2015 Sep; 22 (9):1323-5
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  20. Fiesel FC, Ando M, Hudec R, Hill AR, Castanedes-Casey M, Caulfield TR, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Stankowski JN, Bauer PO, Lorenzo-Betancor O, Ferrer I, Arbelo JM, Siuda J, Chen L, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA, Dickson DW, Springer W. (Patho-)physiological relevance of PINK1-dependent ubiquitin phosphorylation. EMBO Rep. 2015 Sep; 16 (9):1114-30 Epub 2015 July 10
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  21. Fiesel FC, Caulfield TR, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Ogaki K, Dourado DF, Flores SC, Ross OA, Springer W. Structural and Functional Impact of Parkinson Disease-Associated Mutations in the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin. Hum Mutat. 2015 Aug; 36 (8):774-86 Epub 2015 June 03
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  22. Yue M, Hinkle KM, Davies P, Trushina E, Fiesel FC, Christenson TA, Schroeder AS, Zhang L, Bowles E, Behrouz B, Lincoln SJ, Beevers JE, Milnerwood AJ, Kurti A, McLean PJ, Fryer JD, Springer W, Dickson DW, Farrer MJ, Melrose HL. Progressive dopaminergic alterations and mitochondrial abnormalities in LRRK2 G2019S knock-in mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Jun; 78:172-95 Epub 2015 Mar 31
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  23. Caulfield TR, Fiesel FC, Springer W. Activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Biochem Soc Trans. 2015 Apr; 43 (2):269-74
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  24. Siuda J, Jasinska-Myga B, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Opala G, Fiesel FC, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Scarffe LA, Dawson VL, Ross OA, Springer W, Dawson TM, Wszolek ZK. Early-onset Parkinson's disease due to PINK1 p.Q456X mutation--clinical and functional study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Nov; 20 (11):1274-8 Epub 2014 Sept 02
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  25. Caulfield TR, Fiesel FC, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Dourado DF, Flores SC, Springer W. Phosphorylation by PINK1 releases the UBL domain and initializes the conformational opening of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014 Nov; 10 (11):e1003935 Epub 2014 Nov 06
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  26. Fiesel FC, Moussaud-Lamodiere EL, Ando M, Springer W. A specific subset of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes regulate Parkin activation and mitophagy differently. J Cell Sci. 2014 Aug 15; 127 (Pt 16):3488-504 Epub 2014 June 13
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  27. Tacik P, Fiesel FC, Fujioka S, Ross OA, Pretelt F, Castaneda Cardona C, Kidd A, Hlavac M, Raizis A, Okun MS, Traynor S, Strongosky AJ, Springer W, Wszolek ZK. Three families with Perry syndrome from distinct parts of the world. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Aug; 20 (8):884-8 Epub 2014 May 13
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  28. Shannon B, Soto-Ortolaza A, Rayaprolu S, Cannon HD, Labbe C, Benitez BA, Choi J, Lynch T, Boczarska-Jedynak M, Opala G, Krygowska-Wajs A, Barcikowska M, Van Gerpen JA, Uitti RJ, Springer W, Cruchaga C, Wszolek ZK, Ross OA. Genetic variation of the retromer subunits VPS26A/B-VPS29 in Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Aug; 35 (8):1958.e1-2 Epub 2014 Mar 05
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  29. Hans F, Fiesel FC, Strong JC, Jackel S, Rasse TM, Geisler S, Springer W, Schulz JB, Voigt A, Kahle PJ. UBE2E ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin isopeptidase Y regulate TDP-43 protein ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4; 289(27):19164-79. Epub 2014 May 13.
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  30. Lincoln S, Allen M, Cox CL, Walker LP, Malphrus K, Qiu Y, Nguyen T, Rowley C, Kouri N, Crook J, Pankratz VS, Younkin S, Younkin L, Carrasquillo M, Zou F, Abdul-Hay SO, Springer W, Sando SB, Aasly JO, Barcikowska M, Wszolek ZK, Lewis JM, Dickson D, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC, Eckman E, Younkin SG, Ertekin-Taner N. LRRTM3 interacts with APP and BACE1 and has variants associating with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). PLoS One. 2013; 8 (6):e64164 Epub 2013 June 04
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  31. Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Banhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC Jr, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Bechet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahova M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronje MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, Feng Y, Fisher PB, Garcia L, Ghosh P, Harris J, Huang J, Hurley JB, Jackson WT, Jiang H, Jimenez A, Johnson DE, Kumar R, Lee GM, Lee JH, Lee SH, Li F, Liu W, McLean PJ, Meyer TF, Moore MN, Prasad A, Reed JC, Ryan KM, Sanchez AM, Schwartz GK, Smith DR, Sood AK, Tang D, Taylor GA, Wang C, Wang F, Wang G, Wang J, Wang Z, Weiss WA, Xu X, Yu L, Zhang XD. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012 Apr; 8 (4):445-544
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  32. Springer W, Kahle PJ. Regulation of PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Autophagy. 2011 Mar; 7(3):266-78.
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  33. Geisler S, Holmstrom KM, Treis A, Skujat D, Weber SS, Fiesel FC, Kahle PJ, Springer W. The PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is compromised by PD-associated mutations. Autophagy. 2010 Oct; 6(7):871-8. Epub 2010 Oct 03.
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  34. Cornejo Castro EM, Waak J, Weber SS, Fiesel FC, Oberhettinger P, Schutz M, Autenrieth IB, Springer W, Kahle PJ. Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1 modulates innate immunity signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neural Transm. 2010 May; 117(5):599-604. Epub 2010 Apr 08.
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  35. Geisler S, Holmstrom KM, Skujat D, Fiesel FC, Rothfuss OC, Kahle PJ, Springer W. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is dependent on VDAC1 and p62/SQSTM1. Nat Cell Biol. 2010 Feb; 12(2):119-31. Epub 2010 Jan 24.
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  36. Fiesel FC, Voigt A, Weber SS, Van den Haute C, Waldenmaier A, Gorner K, Walter M, Anderson ML, Kern JV, Rasse TM, Schmidt T, Springer W, Kirchner R, Bonin M, Neumann M, Baekelandt V, Alunni-Fabbroni M, Schulz JB, Kahle PJ. Knockdown of transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) downregulates histone deacetylase 6. EMBO J. 2010 Jan 6; 29(1):209-21. Epub 2009 Nov 12.
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  37. Klein CL, Rovelli G, Springer W, Schall C, Gasser T, Kahle PJ. Homo- and heterodimerization of ROCO kinases: LRRK2 kinase inhibition by the LRRK2 ROCO fragment. J Neurochem. 2009 Nov; 111(3):703-15. Epub 2009 Aug 27.
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  38. Hasegawa T, Treis A, Patenge N, Fiesel FC, Springer W, Kahle PJ. Parkin protects against tyrosinase-mediated dopamine neurotoxicity by suppressing stress-activated protein kinase pathways. J Neurochem. 2008 Jun; 105(5):1700-15. Epub 2008 Feb 04.
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  39. Springer W, Kahle PJ. Mechanisms and models of alpha-synuclein-related neurodegeneration. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006 Sep; 6(5):432-6.
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  40. Springer W, Hoppe T, Schmidt E, Baumeister R. A Caenorhabditis elegans Parkin mutant with altered solubility couples alpha-synuclein aggregation to proteotoxic stress. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Nov 15; 14(22):3407-23. Epub 2005 Oct 04.
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  41. Hoppe T, Cassata G, Barral JM, Springer W, Hutagalung AH, Epstein HF, Baumeister R. Regulation of the myosin-directed chaperone UNC-45 by a novel E3/E4-multiubiquitylation complex in C. elegans. Cell. 2004 Aug 6; 118(3):337-49.
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