Rochester, Minnesota Clinical Profile


Glaucoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developed world, with over 2.5 million people affected in the United States alone, and 60 million people affected worldwide. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the primary risk factor in glaucoma, and lowering of IOP is the only effective treatment for glaucoma at this time. However, with current technology, IOP can only be practically measured while patients are in clinic and routine practice involves measurements only a few times a year. Mounting evidence indicates that this approach is inadequate for optimal management of glaucoma since IOP varies with random fluctuations as well as a circadian rhythm with peak IOP occurring during the sleeping hours. Furthermore, the physiologic reasons for these IOP variations are poorly understood, resulting in an incomplete understanding of glaucoma pathophysiology and the mechanisms of glaucoma therapies.

Current research focuses of four areas:

  1. Understanding the basic mechanisms of circadian IOP variation
  2. Developing the technology to non-invasively measure aqueous humor dynamics
  3. Understanding the clinical significance of IOP variations, particularly during the nocturnal period
  4. Developing technology to non-invasively measure 24-hour IOP

Other areas of current research include:

  • Epidemiology of glaucoma
  • Evaluation of novel surgical devices for glaucoma


Primary Appointment

  1. Consultant, Department of Ophthalmology
  2. Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology

Academic Rank

  1. Professor of Ophthalmology


  1. Fellow - Glaucoma University of California, San Diego
  2. Resident - Ophthalmology University of Toronto
  3. MD University of Toronto
  4. SM - Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  5. BSME - Mechanical Engineering University of Toronto

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