Jacksonville, Florida


Castillo.Pablo@mayo.edu Clinical Profile


The research of Pablo R. Castillo, M.D., pioneers the field of invasive neuromodulation of sleep in humans. Neuromodulation is the stimulation of a specific part of the body by affecting its nerve activity.

Dr. Castillo's research suggests that a part of the brain called the globus pallidus external segment (GPe) is important for the control of sleep in humans.

Dr. Castillo developed a model in which the GPe integrates sleep and motor function. He collaborates with a team of international researchers who study the epidemiology of sleep disorders in a defined underserved Native population. This project is called the Atahualpa Project.

The study is a door-to-door survey of sleep, cardiovascular health and stroke in rural coastal Ecuador. Multiple assessments are ongoing, with protocol modifications evolving in view of the recent COVID-19 pandemic.

Focus areas

  • Sleep neuromodulation using GPe deep brain stimulation. This is a new treatment for sleep disorders especially in patients with Parkinson's disease and insomnia.
  • Brain morphological changes that happen with sleep disorders. Dr. Castillo is using neuroimaging to check brain perivascular spaces in sleep disorders as an alternative to observing irregular elimination of nervous system substances and cerebral small vessel disease.

Significance to patient care

Sleep disorders impose major burdens on public health. Dr. Castillo's goal is to use translational research in clinical practice. Dr. Castillo and his colleagues focus on discovering specific brain areas that can be neuromodulated to improve sleep quality in patients with severe insomnia.

Professional highlights

  • Member, Education Committee, American Academy of Neurology, 2022-present.
  • Fellow, Academy of Educational Excellence, Mayo Clinic, 2020-present.
  • Associate editor, Journal of the American Heart Association, 2019-present.
  • Honorary professor, Universidad de Specialities Espiritu Santo, Ecuador, 2017-present.
  • Program director, Sleep Medicine Fellowship (Florida), Mayo Clinic, 2016-present.
  • Educator of the Year, University of Minnesota Medical School, 2022, 2008.
  • Community Service Award, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 2021.


Primary Appointment

  1. Consultant, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine

Academic Rank

  1. Assistant Professor of Medicine
  2. Professor of Neurology


  1. Fellow - Sleep Medicine Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  2. Fellow - Clinical Neurophysiology: EMG & EEG University of Minnesota
  3. Fellow - Cerebrovascular Diseases Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  4. Resident Stroke/Cerebrovascular, Programs in Florida, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  5. Resident - Neurology Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  6. Resident Neurology, Programs in Rochester, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  7. Resident - Internal Medicine Louisiana State University, New Orleans
  8. Foreign Internal Medicine training National Oncology Institute-Society to Fight Cancer
  9. MD Universidad de Guayaquil
  10. Undergraduate School British College of Ecuador

Clinical Studies

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