LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) was born in Dôle, France, the son of a tanner. He received his bachelor of science degree from the College of Besançon in 1840. He received his doctorate in 1848, for interesting work on the crystals of tartaric acid. He made many fundamental contributions. Pasteur finally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation, and proved the germ theory of disease. His practical methods of controlling silkworm disease, anthrax, chicken cholera, and the diseases of wine and beer brought immense financial gain to France. He also developed a successful treatment for rabies.