JOSEPH LISTER (1827-1912) was born in London, and in 1844 entered University College, London. He received his M.D. degree in 1852. Impressed by the surgery of Professor Syme of Edinburgh, he became his resident house surgeon, and later married Syme's daughter. In March 1865 the development of antiseptic surgery began when he first employed carbolic acid in the treatment of a compound fracture.