Hermann Von Helmholtz
HERMANN VON HELMHOLTZ (1821-1894) was born in Potsdam, Germany near Berlin in 1821. He was very precocious, and showed unusual mathematical ability. He received his M.D. in 1842 from Berlin, where he was a student of a famous teacher of physiology, Johannes Müller. In 1847 he read his famous essay on the conservation of energy in which he showed mathematically that all forms of energy, such as heat, light, electricity, and chemical phenomena, can be transformed from one form to another but which are indestructible. In 1851 he invented the ophthalmoscope, Beschreibung eines Augen - spiegels zur Untersuchung der Netzhaut im lebenden Auge. He made fundamental contributions to physiological optics and physics and physiology of sound.