A Study to Assess Older Adults Applying Pre-transplant Comorbidity, Geriatric Assessment and Biomarkers to Predict Non-Relapse Mortality After Allogeneic Transplant (CHARM)

Overview

About this study

The purpose of this study is to determine the set of assessments and biomarkers that could together constitute a robust and valid composite health risk model for accurate personalized estimation of one year NRM.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects 60 years of age or older.
  • Able to speak and read English, Spanish or Mandarin.
  • Eligible for first allogeneic transplantation based on institutional standards.
  • Subjects must have a planned allogeneic transplantation for a hematologic malignancy.
  • Any allogeneic graft source or donor type will be permitted. Subjects must provide informed consent.

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

William Hogan, M.B., B.Ch.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Nandita Khera, M.D., M.P.H.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

More information

Publications

  • As the worldwide population ages, oncologists are often required to make difficult and complex decisions regarding the treatment of older people (aged 65 years and older) with cancer. Chronological age alone is often a poor indicator of the physiological and functional status of older adults, and thus should not be the main factor guiding treatment decisions in oncology. By contrast, a geriatric assessment can provide a much more comprehensive understanding of the functional and physiological age of an older person with cancer. The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional tool that evaluates several domains, including physical function, cognition, nutrition, comorbidities, psychological status, and social support. In this Series paper, we discuss the use of a geriatric assessment-based approach to cancer care, and provide clinicians with tools to better assess the risks and benefits of treatment to engage in shared decision making and provide better personalised care for older people with cancer. Read More on PubMed
  • Multimorbidity and the associated use of multiple medicines (polypharmacy), is common in the older population. Despite this, there is no consensus definition for polypharmacy. A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarise polypharmacy definitions in existing literature. Read More on PubMed
  • The study was designed to compare clofarabine plus daunorubicin vs daunorubicin/ara-C in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Eight hundred and six untreated patients in the UK NCRI AML16 trial with AML/high-risk MDS (median age, 67 years; range 56-84) and normal serum creatinine were randomised to two courses of induction chemotherapy with either daunorubicin/ara-C (DA) or daunorubicin/clofarabine (DClo). Patients were also included in additional randomisations; ± one dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in course 1; 2v3 courses and ± azacitidine maintenance. The primary end point was overall survival. The overall response rate was 69% (complete remission (CR) 60%; CRi 9%), with no difference between DA (71%) and DClo (66%). There was no difference in 30-/60-day mortality or toxicity: significantly more supportive care was required in the DA arm even though platelet and neutrophil recovery was significantly slower with DClo. There were no differences in cumulative incidence of relapse (74% vs 68%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.93 (0.77-1.14), P=0.5); survival from relapse (7% vs 9%; HR 0.96 (0.77-1.19), P=0.7); relapse-free (31% vs 32%; HR 1.02 (0.83-1.24), P=0.9) or overall survival (23% vs 22%; HR 1.08 (0.93-1.26), P=0.3). Clofarabine 20 mg/m given for 5 days with daunorubicin is not superior to ara-C+daunorubicin as induction for older patients with AML/high-risk MDS. Read More on PubMed
  • A large number of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not offered treatments with curative intent, such as allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), because of fears of toxicity and perceived futility of intensive treatment. Therefore, the outcomes of SCT in elderly AML patients remain poorly defined. We performed a meta-analysis of all previous articles up until September 22, 2015 of SCT in AML patients >60 years. The primary endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years. A total of 13 studies (749 patients) were included. The pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RFS at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were 62% (95% CI, 54% to 69%), 47% (95% CI, 42% to 53%), 44% (95% CI, 33% to 55%), and 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), respectively. The corresponding numbers for OS were 73% (95% CI, 66% to 79%), 58% (95% CI, 50% to 65%), 45% (95% CI, 35% to 54%), and 38% (95% CI, 29% to 48%), respectively. We found no evidence of publication bias in our primary endpoints, with the exception of relapse, where there appeared to be a relative lack of small studies with high relapse rates. Sensitivity analysis did not identify an overtly influential study for our primary endpoints, with 1 exception in 2-year RFS analysis. The present analysis argues against significant publication bias and demonstrates consistency among reports despite differences in patient-, disease-, center-, and transplantation-related characteristics. Our results suggest that reduced-intensity SCT is a viable treatment option for elderly AML patients with a 3-year RFS of 35% for those over the age of 60. These results argue against using age per se as the sole criterion against SCT and would help remove some of the barriers that often preclude curative intent treatment. Correct identification of patients who would benefit from SCT can improve outcomes in this frequently undertreated population. Read More on PubMed
  • The maximum age of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) has been moving up over time. However, the availability of a suitable HLA-matched sibling donor may limit access of this patient population to alloHCT. We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) after reduced-intensity conditioning regimens in patients aged ≥70 years with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) between 2010 and 2014. During this period 70 patients with AML/MDS were referred to our center for alloHCT consideration. Twenty-two patients (33%) received alloHCT: 10 UCBT, 9 HLA full-matched sibling donor transplantation, 2 haploidentical alloHCT, and 1 unrelated donor alloHCT. In UCBT, cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 20% and 30% at 2 years, respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day +100 and chronic GVHD at 2 years was 10%. Seven patients had viral reactivation/infections. Rates of overall survival and disease-free survival were 60% and 50% at 2 years, respectively. Moreover, these outcomes seemed to be similar to that of patients aged 60 to 69 years receiving UCBT (n = 60) and patients aged ≥70 years receiving HLA full-matched sibling donor transplantation (n = 9). These results suggest that UCBT is feasible in selected AML/MDS patients aged ≥70 years. In fact, UCBT shortens the required time for an unrelated donor search and thus increases the chance of proceeding with alloHCT, which might contribute to higher rates of alloHCT in the referral group. Outcomes of UCBT are promising; however, larger studies with a longer follow-up are needed. Read More on PubMed
  • It has recently been shown that a T cell-replete allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor (haplo-ID) could be a valid treatment for hematological malignancies. However, little data exist concerning older populations. We provided transplantation to 31 patients over the age of 55 years from a haplo-ID and compared their outcomes with patients of the same ages who underwent transplantation from a matched related (MRD) or an unrelated donor (UD). All 3 groups were comparable, except for their conditioning. Patients in haplo-ID group received 2 days of post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, whereas patients in other groups received pretransplantation antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and additional mycophenolate mofetil in case of 1-antigen mismatch. All patients but 1 in the haplo-ID group engrafted. The incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not statistically different between recipients from haplo-ID (cumulative incidence, 23%) and MRD (cumulative incidence, 21%) transplantations but it was lower than after UD HSCT (cumulative incidence, 44%). No patient in the haplo-ID group developed severe chronic GVHD, compared with cumulative incidences of 16% and 14% after MRD (P = .02) and UD (P = .03) grafts, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse were similar in the 3 groups, whereas nonrelapse mortality after UD HSCT was 3-fold higher than after haplo-ID or MRD HSCT. Overall, 2-year overall survival (70%), progression-free survival (67%), and progression and severe chronic GVHD-free survival (67%) probabilities after haplo-ID did not statistically differ from MRD transplantation (78%, 64%, and 51%, respectively), although they were higher than after UD transplantation (51% [P = .08], 38% [P = .02], and 31% [P = .007]). We conclude that T cell-replete haplo-ID HSCT followed by post-transplantation high-dose- cyclophosphamide in patients over 55 years is associated with promising results, similar to MRD HSCT, and is deserving prospective evaluation. Read More on PubMed
  • Older adults are at increased risk for chemotherapy toxicity, and standard oncology assessment measures cannot identify those at risk. A predictive model for chemotherapy toxicity was developed (N = 500) that consisted of geriatric assessment questions and other clinical variables. This study aims to externally validate this model in an independent cohort (N = 250). Read More on PubMed
  • Long-term survival rates for older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are extremely low. Previous observational studies suggest that allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) may improve overall survival (OS) because of lower rates of relapse. We sought to prospectively determine the value of HSCT for older patients with AML in first complete remission. Read More on PubMed
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of functional capacity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematological malignancies. Read More on PubMed
  • Recent advances in nonmyeloablative (NMA), related HLA-haploidentical blood or marrow transplantation (haplo-BMT) have expanded the donor pool. This study evaluated the effect of age on NMA haplo-BMT outcomes in patients age 50 to 75 years. Read More on PubMed
  • Prospective validation of the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) using contemporary patients treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) across the Unites States is necessary to confirm its widespread applicability. We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (8115 recipients of allogeneic and 11,652 recipients of autologous HCT) who underwent a first HCT that was reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2007 and 2009. In proportional hazards models, increased HCT-CI scores were independently associated with increases in hazard ratios for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P < .0001) and overall mortality (P < .0001) among recipients of allogeneic HCT. HCT-CI scores of ≥3 were uniformly associated with higher risks for outcomes in both allogeneic and autologous HCT and in all subgroups, regardless of diagnoses, age, and conditioning intensity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT with scores of 1 and 2 who were ages < 18 years or were treated with lower intensity conditioning regimens had similar outcomes compared with those with a score of 0. Higher risks for overall mortality, but not for NRM, were observed among recipients of autologous HCT with scores of 1 and 2 versus 0. Our results confirm the validity the HCT-CI in both allogeneic and autologous HCT. The index should be used as a valid standard-of-care health measure in counseling patients for HCT, in clinical trial design, and in adjusting outcome analyses. Read More on PubMed
  • Age has long been used as a major factor for assessing suitability for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was developed as a measure of health status to predict mortality risk after HCT. Whether age, comorbidities, or both should guide decision making for HCT is unknown. Read More on PubMed
  • Older patients who receive hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) may be at risk for adverse outcomes due to age-related conditions or frailty. Geriatric assessment (GA) has been used to evaluate HCT candidates but can be time-consuming. We therefore sought to determine the predictive ability of two screening tools, the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) and the G8, for abnormal GA or frailty. Read More on PubMed
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is increasingly utilized in older adults. This study prospectively evaluated the prognostic utility of geriatric assessment domains prior to allogeneic transplantation in recipients aged 50 years and over. Geriatric assessment was performed prior to transplant, and included validated measures across domains of function and disability, comorbidity, frailty, mental health, nutritional status, and systemic inflammation. A total of 203 patients completed geriatric assessment and underwent transplant. Median age was 58 years (range 50-73). After adjusting for established prognostic factors, limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (HR 2.38, 95%CI: 1.59-3.56; P<0.001), slow walk speed (HR 1.80, 95%CI: 1.14-2.83; P=0.01), high comorbidity by hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HR 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.28; P=0.02), low mental health by short-form-36 mental component summary (HR 1.67, 95%CI: 1.13-2.48; P=0.01), and elevated serum C-reactive protein (HR 2.51, 95%CI: 1.54-4.09; P<0.001) were significantly associated with inferior overall survival. These associations were more pronounced in the cohort 60 years and over. Geriatric assessment measures confer independent prognostic utility in older allogeneic transplant recipients. Implementation of geriatric assessment prior to allogeneic transplantation may aid appropriate selection of older adults. Read More on PubMed
  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a life-saving treatment for patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. Prognostic measures to determine fitness for HCT are needed to inform decision-making and interventions. VO(2peak) is obtained by measuring gas exchange during cycle ergometry and has not been studied as a prognostic factor in HCT. Thirty-two autologous and allogeneic HCT patients underwent VO(2peak) and 6 Minute Walk (6MW) testing before HCT, and provided weekly symptom and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessments before HCT and concluding at Day 100. Twenty-nine patients completed pre-HCT testing. Pre-HCT VO(2peak) was positively correlated with pre-HCT 6MW (r=0.65, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with number of chemotherapy regimens and months of chemotherapy. Patients with lower VO(2peak) reported higher symptom burden and inferior HRQOL at baseline and during early post-HCT period. Patients with pre-HCT VO(2peak) <16 mL/kg/min had higher risk of mortality post HCT (entire cohort: hazard ratio (HR) 9.1 (1.75-47.0), P=0.01; allogeneic HCT patients only: HR 6.70 (1.29-34.75), P=0.02) and more hospitalized days before Day 100 (entire cohort: median 33 vs 19, P=0.003; allogeneic HCT patients only: median 33 vs 21, P=0.004). VO(2peak) pre-HCT is feasible and might predict symptom severity, HRQOL and mortality. Additional studies are warranted. Read More on PubMed
  • Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is frequently used in oncology to measure the health status of older adults with cancer, but it has not been studied in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We conducted a prospective pilot study of CGA in allogeneic HCT recipients aged ≥50 years to examine the prevalence of vulnerabilities in this population. Patients aged ≥50 years eligible for HCT were enrolled. CGA consisted mainly of self-reported, performance-based, and chart-extracted measures evaluating domains of comorbidity, physical and mental function, frailty, disability, and nutrition. Of 238 eligible patients, 166 completed CGA and underwent HCT. Only 1% had a Zubrod Performance Status score >1; 44% had high comorbidity defined by the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index, and 66% had high comorbidity defined by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics. The presence of additional vulnerability was frequent. Disability was present in 40% by Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Self-reported physical and mental function were significantly lower than population age group norms, 58% were pre-frail, and 25% were frail. Among those with Zubrod Performance Status score of 0, 28% demonstrated disability, 58% were pre-frail, 15% were frail, 35% reported low physical function, and 55% reported low mental function. CGA uncovers a substantial prevalence of undocumented impairments in functional status, frailty, disability, and mental health in older allogeneic HCT recipients. Read More on PubMed
  • Older patients are increasingly undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. A relevant question is whether outcomes can be improved with a younger allele-level 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) rather than an older HLA-matched sibling (MSD). Accordingly, transplants in leukemia/lymphoma patients age ≥50 years were analyzed comparing outcomes for recipients of MSD ≥50 (n = 1415) versus MUD <50 years (n = 757). Risks of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 2 to 4 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; P < .001), 3 to 4 (HR, 1.85; P < .001), and chronic GVHD (HR, 1.48; P < .0001) were higher after MUD compared with MSD transplants. The effect of donor type on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall mortality was associated with performance score. For patients with scores of 90 or 100, NRM (HR, 1.42; P = .001), relapse (HR, 1.45; P < .001), and overall mortality (HR, 1.28; P = .001) risks were higher after MUD transplants. For patients with scores below 90, NRM (HR, 0.96; P = .76), relapse (HR, 0.86; P = .25), and overall mortality (HR, 0.90; P = .29) were not significantly different after MUD and MSD transplants. These data favor an MSD over a MUD in patients age ≥50 years. Read More on PubMed
  • Hematological malignancy patients not referred by their primary hematologist/medical oncologist suffer disparate access to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, investigation into physician, system and patient factors relevant to this decision making is lacking. We surveyed a national randomized sample of practicing hematologists/medical oncologists identified through the AMA (American Medical Association) masterfile. A modified Dillman approach was utilized to encourage survey response. From 1200 surveyed, a total of 113 physicians responded. In all, 68% were male, 62% identified as White/non-Hispanic, 79% practiced in non-academic settings and 80% reported spending 75-100% of their professional effort in clinical care. Using clinical vignettes, we detected significantly increased odds for HCT non-referral according to age (age 60 vs 30, odds ratio (OR) 8.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-11.7, P<0.0001), insurance coverage (no coverage vs coverage, OR 6.9, 95% CI: 5.2-9.1, P<0.0001) and race (African-American vs Caucasian, OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.9-2.9, P<0.0001). Physician (perception of HCT risks), system (insurance coverage) and patient (age, social support and co-morbid illness) factors were strongly endorsed by respondents as important determinants of their HCT referral practices. These data speak to important factors relevant to HCT referral practices, and highlight several opportunities for education and intervention to reduce current disparities. Read More on PubMed
  • To evaluate the prognostic significance of the international European LeukemiaNet (ELN) guidelines for reporting genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Read More on PubMed
  • The development of tools for the prediction of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) would offer a major guidance in the therapeutic decision. Recently, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) has been associated with increased NRM risk in several retrospective studies, but its clinical utility has never been demonstrated prospectively in an adequately sized cohort. To this aim, we prospectively evaluated a consecutive cohort of 1937 patients receiving HSCT in Italy over 2 years. HCT-CI was strongly correlated with both 2-year NRM (14.7%, 21.3%, and 27.3% in patients having an HCT-CI score of 0, 1-2, and ≥ 3, respectively) and overall survival (56.4%, 54.5%, and 41.3%, respectively). There was an excellent calibration between the predicted and observed 2-year NRM in patients having an HCT-CI score of 0 and 1-2, whereas in the ≥ 3 group the predicted NRM overestimated the observed NRM (41% vs 27.3%). HCT-CI alone was the strongest predictor of NRM in patients with lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia in first remission (c-statistics 0.66, 064, and 0.59, respectively). We confirm the clinical utility of the HCT-CI score that could also identify patients at low NRM risk possibly benefiting from an HSCT-based treatment strategy. Read More on PubMed
  • Population-based registries may provide data complementary to that from basic science and clinical intervention studies, all of which are essential for establishing recommendations for the management of patients in the real world. The same quality criteria apply for the evidence-based label, and both high representation and good data quality are crucial in registry studies. Registries with high coverage of the target population reduce the impact of selection on outcome and the subsequent problem with extrapolating data to nonstudied populations. Thus, data useful for clinical decision in situations not well covered by clinical studies can be provided. The potential clinical impact of data from population-based studies is exemplified with analyses from the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry containing more than 3300 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 with a median follow-up of 6.2 years on (1) the role of intensive combination chemotherapy for older patients with AML, (2) the impact of allogeneic stem cell transplantation on survival of younger patients with AML, and (3) the continuing problem with early deaths in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We also present the first Web-based dynamic graph showing the complex interaction between age, performance status, the proportion of patients given intensive treatment, early death rate, complete remission rate, use of allogeneic transplants, and overall survival in AML (non-AML). Read More on PubMed
  • Factors captured in a geriatric assessment can predict morbidity and mortality in older adults, but are not routinely measured in cancer clinical trials. This study evaluated the implementation of a geriatric assessment tool in the cooperative group setting. Read More on PubMed
  • We previously reported that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was useful for predicting outcomes in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the sample size of patients with scores of 1 or more, captured by the CCI, did not exceed 35%. Further, some comorbidities were rarely found among patients who underwent HCT. Therefore, the current study was designed to (1) better define previously identified comorbidities using pretransplant laboratory data, (2) investigate additional HCT-related comorbidities, and (3) establish comorbidity scores that were suited for HCT. Data were collected from 1055 patients, and then randomly divided into training and validation sets. Weights were assigned to individual comorbidities according to their prognostic significance in Cox proportional hazard models. The new index was then validated. The new index proved to be more sensitive than the CCI since it captured 62% of patients with scores more than 0 compared with 12%, respectively. Further, the new index showed better survival prediction than the CCI (likelihood ratio of 23.7 versus 7.1 and c statistics of 0.661 versus 0.561, respectively, P < .001). In conclusion, the new simple index provided valid and reliable scoring of pretransplant comorbidities that predicted nonrelapse mortality and survival. This index will be useful for clinical trials and patient counseling before HCT. Read More on PubMed
  • Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. Read More on PubMed
  • The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small. Read More on PubMed

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