My research interests include investigating the various mechanisms responsible for abnormal glucose metabolism in individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes. I am interested in the reasons for higher fasting and post-meal glucose concentrations in people with impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes. I am also looking at the mechanisms by which cortisol plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies that we conducted have shown that the splanchnic bed makes cortisol in humans via the enzyme 11betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and now I am looking at what modulates splanchnic and whole-body cortisol production. Is it mediated by the pituitary-hypothalamic axis or by degree of visceral adiposity, and does nutrient ingestion and/or incretins/insulin modulate this process?