The Biobank was established at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and recruitment began in April 2009. Since then, the Biobank has expanded to Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., and the Mayo Clinic Health System. The Biobank's goal is to enroll 50,000 Mayo Clinic patients by 2015 to support a wide array of health-related research studies at Mayo Clinic and other institutions.

The Mayo Clinic Biobank includes groups that create and implement policies about the storage of donor samples and health information as well as regulate access to biospecimens.