A Study to Evaluate Breathing Muscle Training in Cardiac Rehab


About this study

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of inspiratory muscle training in heart failure patients enrolled in outpatient center-based cardiac rehabilitation. 

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria - Heart Failure Group:

  • Patients ≥ 18 years.
  • No history of dangerous arrhythmias.
  • Not pacemaker dependent.
  • Having a body mass index ≤ 40kg/m^2.
  • Currently non-smokers with < 15 pack year history.
  • Able to exercise (i.e., without significant orthopedic limitations or musculoskeletal disorders limiting their ability to exercise). 

Inclusion Criteria - Healthy Control Group:

  • Adults ≥ 18 years of age.
  • Absent a history of HFpEF or HFrEF, pulmonary, neurologic, orthopedic, or other diseases affecting the neuromuscular system.
  • Controls will be matched for age and sex.

Additional inclusion criteria include:

  • BMI ≤ 40kg/m^2.
  • current non-smokers with smoking history < 15 pack years.
  • Able to engage in exercise (i.e., without significant orthopedic limitations or musculoskeletal disorders limiting their ability to exercise).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of dangerous arrhythmias.
  • Body mass index > 40 kg/m^2.
  • Current smokers and/or smoking history > 15 pack years.
  • Pregnant women (testing will be done by research team if requested).
  • Uremia, history of allergy to iodides.
  • Impaired renal function.
  • Peripheral artery disease.
  • Creatinine value greater than or equal to 1.3 mg/dL (via clinical record within the past 6 months).
  • Diagnosis of liver disease.
  • Individuals who are not able to engage in exercise.
  • Asthmatic patients with a low symptom perception and suffer frequency, severe exacerbations or with an abnormally low perception of dyspnea.
  • Ruptured eardrum or any other condition of the ear.

Eligibility last updated 10/7/21. Questions regarding updates should be directed to the study team contact.


Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Thomas Olson, Ph.D., M.S.

Open for enrollment

Contact information:

Joshua Smith Ph.D.

(507) 266-2690


More information


Publications are currently not available