Study to Evaluate Eflornithine + Lomustine vs Lomustine in Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) Patients


About this study

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of eflornithine in combination with lomustine, compared to lomustine taken alone, in treating patients whose anaplastic astrocytoma has recurred/progressed after radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy.

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

Patients must meet all of the following inclusion criteria to be eligible for participation in this study:

  • The ability to understand and sign a written informed consent form, which must be obtained prior to initiation of study procedures.
  • Age ≥ 18 years.
  • Surgical or biopsy-proven diagnosis of WHO grade 3 AA.
  • Received EBRT and temozolomide chemotherapy prior to first tumor progression or recurrence of WHO Grade 3 AA.
  • First AA tumor progression or recurrence ≤ 6 months prior to randomization based on MRI using T2 hyperintensity, Gd-contrast enhancement, or both. To avoid enrollment of patients with glioblastoma, patients with Gd-contrast enhancing tumors will be eligible if there is no necrosis seen on MRI and any one of the following criteria is true:
    • Gd-contrast lesion margins are not clearly defined;
    • Gd-contrast lesions are only measurable in one dimension;
    • Gd-contrast lesion has two perpendicular diameters less than 10mm [1];
    • Gd-contrast lesion has two perpendicular diameters greater than 10 mm but less than 20 mm and lesion does not demonstrate central necrosis;
    • Recent histopathological confirmation of WHO grade 3 AA.
  • Completion of EBRT ≥ 6 months prior to randomization.
  • Stained, unstained slides or tumor tissue block(s) are available from their most recent tumor surgery are available for central histological confirmation.
  • A patient whose AA tumor has progressed or recurred and has had another surgical resection prior to randomization will be eligible if a) pathology review confirms AA, and b) post-surgical MRI demonstrates measurable tumor on T2 FLAIR.
  • If taking corticosteroids, must be on a stable or decreasing dose for at least 5 days prior to the screening MRI.
  • Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of ≥ 70.
  • Off anticancer therapy for at least 4 weeks and recovered from any significant treatment-related toxicities to Grade ≤ 1 prior to randomization.
  • Adequate recovery from any major surgery is required; at least 4 weeks must have elapsed from the time of any major surgery and must have recovered from all surgery-related toxicities to Grade ≤ 1 prior to randomization.
  • Adequate hematologic function (ANC ≥ 1,500/μL, platelet count ≥ 100,000/μL, and hemoglobin ≥ 10.5 gm/dL) within 14 days prior to randomization.
  • Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5x upper limit of normal (ULN) within 14 days prior to randomization.
  • Hepatic transaminases (AST and ALT) ≤ 2x ULN within 14 days prior to randomization.
  • Adequate renal function (serum creatinine ≤ 1.5x ULN) within 14 days prior to randomization.
  • Life expectancy ≥ 6 months.
  • Female patients of childbearing potential must agree to utilize acceptable contraceptive methods from screening throughout the duration of the study period, and for 30 days following the last dose of study drug. Abstinence is an acceptable method of contraception. Otherwise, consistent and current use of 1 of the following methods of birth control is accepted: oral contraceptive, intrauterine device (IUD), intrauterine hormone-releasing system (IUS), tubal sterilization, Essure micro-insert system, or vasectomy in the male partner. Female patients must also refrain from egg donation and in vitro fertilization during treatment and until at least 30 days from the last dose of study drug.
  • Male patients must agree to abstain from sexual intercourse or use an acceptable contraceptive method (e.g. condoms) from screening throughout the duration of the study period, and for 90 days following the last dose of study drug. Male patients must also refrain from sperm donation during treatment and until at least 90 days from the last dose of study drug.

Exclusion Criteria:

Patients who meet any of the following exclusion criteria are not eligible for study participation:

  • MRI defining progression is consistent with a diagnosis of glioblastoma or radiation necrosis.
  • Patients who are considered to be refractory to EBRT and temozolomide but who have not progressed.
  • Prior systemic therapy for recurrence of AA.
  • Presence of extracranial or leptomeningeal disease.
  • Prior lomustine use.
  • History of other invasive malignancy, unless adequately treated with curative intent and with no known active disease present within 2 years prior to the first dose of study drug. Patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, carcinoma in situ (including superficial bladder cancer), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and organ-confined prostate cancer deemed by the Investigator to be at low risk of recurrence are not excluded.
  • Active infection or serious intercurrent medical illness.
  • Known to be HIV positive or to have an AIDS-related illness, active Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), or active Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).
  • Poorly controlled seizures.
  • Unable to undergo an MRI with contrast.
  • Uncontrolled or severe cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction or unstable angina within 6 months prior to study treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV congestive heart failure, serious arrhythmias requiring medication for treatment, clinically significant pericardial disease, or cardiac amyloidosis.
  • Malabsorption syndrome, history of resection of the stomach or small bowel, active ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, or partial or complete bowel obstruction or other conditions that would be expected to alter the absorption or PK of study drugs.
  • Receipt of any other anticancer therapy while receiving protocol-defined therapy.
  • Concurrent use of any other investigational agent during the study or within 30 days prior to randomization.
  • Any other clinical condition or prior therapy that, in the opinion of the Investigator, would make the patient unsuitable for the study.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding.

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Sani Kizilbash, M.D., M.P.H.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

Jacksonville, Fla.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Kurt Jaeckle, M.D.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office

(855) 776-0015

More information


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