Safety and Efficacy of Combination Listeria/GVAX Pancreas Vaccine in the Pancreatic Cancer Setting


About this study

Test the safety, immune response and efficacy of GVAX pancreas vaccine (with cyclophosphamide) and CRS-207 compared to chemotherapy or CRS-207 alone in adults with previously treated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Participation eligibility

Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Have histologically proven malignant adenocarcinoma of the pancreas; measurable disease is not required, mixed histology is not allowed; subjects must have metastatic disease
  • 2nd line, 3rd line or greater
  • At least 18 years of age
  • ECOG of 0 or 1
  • Anticipated life expectancy >12 weeks
  • For women and men of childbearing potential, a medically acceptable method of highly effective contraception (oral hormonal contraceptive, condom plus spermicide, or hormone implants) must be used throughout the study period and for 28 days after their final vaccine administration. (A barrier method of contraception must be employed by all subjects [male and female], regardless of other methods.)
  • Have adequate organ function as defined by specified laboratory values

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Allergy to both penicillin & sulfa or suspected hypersensitivity to GM-CSF, dimethyl sulfoxide, fetal bovine serum, trypsin, yeast, glycerol or other component of the therapy options
  • Known history or evidence of brain metastases, immunodeficiency disease or immunocompromised state or or history of autoimmune disease requiring systemic steroids or other immunosuppressive treatment
  • Have any evidence of hepatic cirrhosis or clinical or radiographic ascites
  • Have prosthetic heart valves, major implant or device placed in the last 12 months or history of infection with implant/device that cannot be easily removed
  • Rapidly progressing disease
  • Clinically significant and/or malignant pleural effusion
  • Received prior GVAX pancreas vaccine or CRS-207
  • Major surgery or significant traumatic injury (or unhealed surgical wounds) occurring within 28 days prior to receiving study drug, or planned surgery requiring general anesthesia
  • Infection with HIV or hepatitis B or C at screening
  • Valvular heart disease that requires antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of endocarditis
  • Be pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Unable to avoid close contact with another individual known to be at high risk of listeriosis (e.g., newborn infant, pregnant woman, HIV-positive individual) during the course of CRS-207 treatment until completion of antibiotic regimen
  • Conditions, including alcohol or drug dependence, intercurrent illness, or lack of sufficient peripheral venous access, that would affect the patient's ability to comply with study visits and procedures that would affect the patient's ability to comply with study visits and procedures

Participating Mayo Clinic locations

Study statuses change often. Please contact the study team for the most up-to-date information regarding possible participation.

Mayo Clinic Location Status Contact

Rochester, Minn.

Mayo Clinic principal investigator

Robert McWilliams, M.D.

Closed for enrollment

Contact information:

Cancer Center Clinical Trials Referral Office


More information


  • GVAX pancreas, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells, induces T-cell immunity to cancer antigens, including mesothelin. GVAX is administered with low-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) to inhibit regulatory T cells. CRS-207, live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-expressing mesothelin, induces innate and adaptive immunity. On the basis of preclinical synergy, we tested prime/boost vaccination with GVAX and CRS-207 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Read More on PubMed
  • Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based vaccines stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity. ANZ-100 is a live-attenuated Lm strain (Lm ΔactA/ΔinlB). Uptake by phagocytes in the liver results in local inflammatory responses and activation and recruitment of natural killer (NK) and T cells, in association with increased survival of mice bearing hepatic metastases. The Lm ΔactA/ΔinlB strain, engineered to express human mesothelin (CRS-207), a tumor-associated antigen expressed by a variety of tumors, induces mesothelin-specific T-cell responses against mesothelin-expressing murine tumors. These two phase I studies test ANZ-100 and CRS-207 in subjects with liver metastases and mesothelin-expressing cancers, respectively. Read More on PubMed
  • Surgical resection provides the only possibility of cure for pancreas cancer. A standard adjuvant approach has not been established. We tested the safety and efficacy of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-based immunotherapy administered in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Read More on PubMed
  • The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy has not been examined in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. We conducted a study of two granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting pancreatic cancer cell lines (CG8020/CG2505) as immunotherapy administered alone or in sequence with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Read More on PubMed
  • The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is being developed as a cancer vaccine platform because of its ability to induce potent innate and adaptive immunity. For successful clinical application, it is essential to develop a Listeria platform strain that is safe yet retains the potency of vaccines based on wild-type bacteria. Here, we report the development of a recombinant live-attenuated vaccine platform strain that retains the potency of the fully virulent pathogen, combined with a >1,000-fold reduction in toxicity, as compared with wild-type Listeria. By selectively deleting two virulence factors, ActA (DeltaactA) and Internalin B (DeltainlB), the immunopotency of Listeria was maintained and its toxicity was diminished in vivo, largely by blocking the direct internalin B-mediated infection of nonphagocytic cells, such as hepatocytes, and the indirect ActA-mediated infection by cell-to-cell spread from adjacent phagocytic cells. In contrast, infection of phagocytic cells was not affected, leaving intact the ability of Listeria to stimulate innate immunity and to induce antigenspecific cellular responses. Listeria DeltaactA/DeltainlB-based vaccines were rapidly cleared from mice after immunization and induced potent and durable effector and memory T-cell responses with no measurable liver toxicity. Therapeutic vaccination of BALB/c mice bearing murine CT26 colon tumor lung metastases or palpable s.c. tumors (>100 mm(3)) with recombinant Listeria DeltaactA/DeltainlB expressing an endogenous tumor antigen resulted in breaking of self-tolerance and long-term survival. We propose that recombinant Listeria DeltaactA/DeltainlB expressing human tumor-associated antigens represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for further development and testing in human clinical trials. Read More on PubMed

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