Images

  • Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ wave in a canine tracheal smooth muscle cell.
    Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ wave in a canine tracheal smooth muscle cell.

    Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ wave in a canine tracheal smooth muscle cell. Each frame represents a snapshot of intracellular Ca2+ taken every 75 ms. Shortening of the cell displayed a phase lag of approximately 300 ms following the rise in Ca2+ at one end of the cell.

  • Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in rat cardiac myocyte.
    Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in rat cardiac myocyte.

    These waves represent Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release and occur through ryanodine receptor channels. Wave frequency and velocity can be modulated by Ca2+ levels.

  • 3D real-time imaging of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in rat cardiac myocyte.
    3D real-time imaging of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in rat cardiac myocyte.

    The images represent real-time confocal optical sections of a wave as it passes through the depth of a myocyte. Images were acquired with a piezo motor attached to the microscope objective at 15 frames/s.

  • 3D representation of spatial distribution of Ca2+spark in rat cardiac myocyte.
    3D representation of spatial distribution of Ca2+spark in rat cardiac myocyte.

    The third dimension represents the amplitude of the spark.

  • 4D representation of Ca2+spark in porcine tracheal smooth muscle cell.
    4D representation of Ca2+spark in porcine tracheal smooth muscle cell.

    Each 2D image is a 3D volume reconstruction (at a known angle of view) of a spark repeated at 4 successive time points. Rotational views of the 3D reconstructions allows 4D representation using only the two dimensions of the page.

  • Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in porcine tracheal smooth muscle cell.
    Acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in porcine tracheal smooth muscle cell.

    Oscillation frequency was directly correlated to basal Ca2+ level, while oscillation amplitude was inversely correlated to basal Ca2+. The oscillations arise from reptitive SR Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptor channels and Ca2+ reupake via the SR ATPase pump. Ca2+ influx is essential to replenish SR stores and maintain the oscillations.

  • Effect of NO donors on Ca2+ oscillations in tracheal smooth muscle cells.
    Effect of NO donors on Ca2+ oscillations in tracheal smooth muscle cells.

    NO donors completely inhibited Ca2+ oscillations, predominantly by inhibiting SR Ca2+ release, and promoting Ca2+ efflux.

  • Ca2+
    Ca2+ "sparks" in porcine skeletal myotubes.

    Sparks are extremely localized, Ca2+ release events that most likely involve ryanodine receptor channels. The frequency of sparks is modulated by agents such as ryanodine and caffeine.

  • Effect of estrogen on intracellular Ca2+ in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells.
    Effect of estrogen on intracellular Ca2+ in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    Estrogens produce relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by inhibiting Ca2+ influx and enhancing Ca2+ efflux, but without affecting SR Ca2+ release.