Phase II Randomized Trial Comparing GA101 (Obinutuzumab) and Rituximab in Patients With Previously Untreated Low Tumor Burden Indolent Non-Hodgkin s Lymphoma
Trial status: Open for Enrollment
Why is this study being done?
According to the American Cancer Society, it is estimated that approximately 70,800 individuals will be diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and over 18,990 men and women will die of the disease in 2014. The survival rates for patients with indolent NHL remained unchanged from the 1950s through the early 1990s, but recent evidence suggests that outcomes are improving. Indolent NHL is a particular challenge because it is an incurable disease requiring multiple treatments; yet relatively long survivals elevate the importance of quality of life associated with treatment.
Agents such as rituximab are active in patients with a low burden of disease and result in high response rates and durable remissions for most patients. However, the optimal therapeutic approach to patients with low-grade lymphoma with a low disease burden is controversial as conventional chemotherapy also results in high rates of response. Regardless of whether patients receive immunotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof, they unfortunately exhibit a continuing pattern of disease relapse and the median survival for newly diagnosed patients is between 7-10 years.
Rituximab and GA101 both target the CD20 antigen. The CD20 antigen is located on the surface of normal and malignant B-cell lymphocytes. An attractive feature of this target is that CD20 is not on hematopoietic stem cells, nor is it expressed in any great extent on other normal body tissues.
Studies in vitro have shown that rituximab predominantly induces antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), but also binds complement and directly induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells.
GA101 shows increased ADCC related to an improved binding of the GA101 to the different allotypes expressed by natural killer cells and monocytes. It also has increased direct cell-death related to an elbow hinge amino acid exchange and Type II binding of the CD20 epitope. The safety of GA101 in NHL so far appears to be similar to that observed with rituximab in patients with NHL, except for a higher incidence of infusion-related reactions.
Depletion of malignant B-cells using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies has an acceptable safety profile, particularly in patients with low-grade B-cell lymphomas with a low disease burden. To determine whether treatment with GA101 results in better outcomes than that seen with rituximab and to determine which anti-CD20 antibody to utilize in future studies, we will conduct a randomized Phase II trial of rituximab and GA101 in patients with previously untreated low-grade lymphoma. Patients will receive either rituximab or GA101 weekly for 4 weeks followed by re-staging. The endpoints of the study will be the Complete Response (CR), Overall Response Rate (ORR), time to next treatment, progression free survival (PFS), and safety of each treatment arm.
PrE0401 Sub-Study Evaluation of Corrected QT (QTc) Interval and Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Patients Participating in GA101 (Obinutuzumab)
Patients randomized to GA101 and who consent to the sub-study will have electrocardiograms obtained pre and post Week 1 and Week 4 to investigate the effect of GA101 on QTc interval. Pharmacokinetic blood samples will also be done to evaluate serum concentrations of GA101 at the same time-points.
Who is eligible to participate?
Registration: Patients having both diffuse and follicular architectural elements will be considered eligible if the histology is predominantly follicular (≥ 50% of the cross-sectional area), and there is no evidence of transformation to a large cell histology.
- Biopsy-proven diagnosis of Grade 1 or 2 follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with no evidence of transformation to large cell histology.
- Meet criteria for Low Tumor Burden:
- No nodal or extra nodal mass ≥ 7 centimeter (cm)
- <3 nodal masses >3 cm in diameter
- No systemic symptoms or B symptoms
- No splenomegaly >16 cm by CT scan
- No risk of compression of a vital organ.
- No leukemic phase with >5000/mm³ circulating lymphocytes.
- No cytopenias defined as:
- Platelets <100,000/mm³
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) <10 g/dL
- Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) <1500/mm³
- Must have Stage III or Stage IV disease.
- Baseline measurements/evaluations obtained within 6 weeks of registration. Patient must have at least one objective measurable disease parameter.
- Age ≥ 18 years.
- Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group Performance Status 0-1.
- Must not have received investigational agents within 30 days of registration.
- Signed Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved informed consent.
- Willing to provide blood samples for research purposes.
- Women must not be pregnant or breastfeeding.
- Women of childbearing potential and sexually active males must use an accepted and effective method of contraception.
- No prior chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy for lymphoma.
- No prior treatment with cytotoxic drugs or rituximab for a previous cancer or another condition (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) or prior use of an anti-CD20 antibody.
- No prior use of any monoclonal antibody within 3 months of randomization.
- No history of severe allergic/anaphylactic reactions to humanized/murine monoclonal antibodies or known sensitivity/allergy to murine products.
- No history of prior malignancy except for adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer, in situ cervical cancer, or other cancer for which the patient has been disease-free for at least 2 years and did not require treatment with cytotoxic drugs or rituximab.
- No major surgery within 4 weeks prior to randomization, other than for diagnosis.
- Must be Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative.
- Have adequate organ function without growth factor and/or transfusion support within ≤ 2 weeks prior to registration:
- ANC ≥ 1500/mm³
- Hgb ≥ 10 g/dL
- Platelets ≥ 100,000/mm³
- Serum Creatinine ≤ 2x Upper Limit Normal (ULN)
- Total Bilirubin ≤ 2x ULN
- AST (aspartate aminotransferase)/ALT (alanine aminotransferase) ≤ 5x ULN
- PTT (Partial Thromboplastin Time) or aPTT (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) >1.5x the ULN in the absence of a lupus anticoagulant
- INR (International Normalized Ratio) >1.5x the ULN in the absence of therapeutic anticoagulation
- No active, uncontrolled infections (afebrile for ≥ 48 hours off antibiotics).
- Must not receive immunization with attenuated live vaccines within 28 days prior to registration or during the study period.
- Must be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) within 2 weeks of registration. Patients who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and anti-HBc are excluded.
- Must be tested for hepatitis C antibody within 2 week of registration. If this test is positive, patients are excluded unless a hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA) is negative.
- No evidence of significant, uncontrolled concomitant diseases that could affect compliance with the protocol or interpretation of results, including significant cardiovascular disease (i.e., severe arrhythmia, myocardial infarction within the previous 6 months, unstable arrhythmias, or unstable angina) or pulmonary disease.