Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.
Patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of symptomatic renal or proximal ureteral stones without evidence of pyelonephritis will be included.
Control patients will be those individuals undergoing percutaneous, ureteroscopic or nephrectomy for non-stone related indications.
Patients with a diagnosis of symptomatic distal ureteral stones would be excluded since these patients would not typically be treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Pregnant patients are not eligible for this protocol, and would not generally have invasive stone removal procedures.
All women of child bearing age will have pregnancy testing as part of their routine clinical care.