Describes the nature of a clinical study. Types include:
- Observational study — observes people and measures outcomes without affecting results.
- Interventional study (clinical trial) — studies new tests, treatments, drugs, surgical procedures or devices.
- Medical records research — uses historical information collected from medical records of large groups of people to study how diseases progress and which treatments and surgeries work best.
During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. In the later phase (phase 3), researchers study whether the treatment works better than the current standard therapy. They also compare the safety of the new treatment with that of current treatments. Phase 3 trials include large numbers of people to make sure that the result is valid. There are also less common very early (phase 0) and later (phase 4) phases. Phase 0 trials are small trials that help researchers decide if a new agent should be tested in a phase 1 trial. Phase 4 trials look at long-term safety and effectiveness, after a new treatment has been approved and is on the market.
- Rochester, Minnesota: 14-007145
NCT ID: NCT02381353
Sponsor Protocol Number: 14-007145
About this study
After surgery to remove the eye, either by enucleation or evisceration, patients have variable levels of pain for several postoperative days. Some patients have almost no discomfort while others require significant amounts of oral narcotics and report pain of 10 out of 10 on a numerical rating scale. The current operative standard is to infiltrate the eye socket with 0.5% bupivacaine during surgery leading to several hours of postoperative analgesia. In 2011, Pacira Pharmaceuticals released a bupivacaine liposomal injectable suspension (Exparel, 1.3%) which offers sustained release of bupivacaine giving postoperative pain control for up to 72 hours. This medication has been used in numerous surgeries including inguinal hernia repair, hemorrhoidectomy, bunionectomy, breast reconstruction, and orthopedic surgery, and the literature reports improved pain control, decreased use of oral opioids, and increased patient satisfaction. There are no reports of the use of Exparel in the ophthalmic literature. The investigators propose a randomized, controlled trial to compare the postoperative pain control offered by sustained release bupivacaine to that offered by standard plain bupivacaine after enucleation or evisceration.