Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.See eligibility criteria
- Healthy volunteers over the age of eighteen that have been recently dismissed from the Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Saint Marys Campus.
- We will recruit a convenience sample of 100 patients from the Emergency Department who have completed their Emergency Department evaluation and treatment and are being discharged to home with non-painful conditions.
- We will exclude persons under the age of eighteen
- Vulnerable populations (pregnant patients and prisoners)
- Those with an allergy to any of the study agents
- Those with acute pain
- Those using antihypertensive or antiarrhythmic agents
- Those with significant cardiopulmonary comorbidities (namely history of arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure)
- Those with concomitant use of MAO-Inhibitors
- Those with a diagnosis of angle closure glaucoma or BPH
- Those with a history of cerebrovascular disease
- As well as those with a history of previous nasal surgery or known nasal anatomic abnormalities.