Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. If you need assistance understanding the eligibility criteria, please contact the study team.See eligibility criteria
- Creatinine <2.2 mg/dL for Caucasian males, <2.0 Caucasian females,< 2.4 African-American males, <2.1 mg/dL African-American females
- Hypertension (Systolic BP>155 mm Hg) and/or requirement for two or more antihypertensive medications: no restrictions on antihypertensive agents, although loop diuretics will be changed to diluting site agents (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, metolazone) prior to study.
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitor) or Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB) therapy maintained or initiated at usual recommended daily dose (equivalent: 40 mg lisinopril) .
- Diabetes requiring insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications (see text)
- Known allergy to furosemide or iodinated intravenous contrast
- Recent Cardiovascular event: Myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure within 3 months
- Cardiac ejection fraction less than 30%
- Evidence of hepatitis B or C, or HIV infection
- requirement for potentially nephrotoxic drugs, e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Uncontrolled hypertension: SBP >180 mm Hg, despite antihypertensive therapy
- Kidney transplant
- Pacemaker, implantable defibrillator or other contraindication to Magnetic resonance imaging
- Inability to comply with breath-hold for 30 seconds
- History of deep venous thrombosis within 3 months of enrollment
- contraindications to renal biopsy including artificial valve requiring continuous anticoagulation