A Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Double-Blinded, Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Riluzole in Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Trial status: Open for Enrollment
Why is this study being done?
At present there are over 1 million people living with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in North America alone, with annual costs for the acute treatment and chronic care of these patients totaling four billion dollars USD. The worldwide prevalence of SCI is unknown, with estimates ranging up to 250 million individuals. The incidence of SCI in developed countries has been estimated to be between 10 - 40 cases per million inhabitants. In spite of the immense impact of SCI at a personal and societal level, an effective and safe pharmacologic treatment for SCI, shown to improve neurological and functional outcomes at long-term follow-up, remains absent.
The final degree of neurological tissue destruction that occurs after traumatic SCI is a product of both primary and secondary injury mechanisms. The primary mechanical injury to the cord initiates a subsequent signaling cascade of deleterious down-stream events, known collectively as secondary injury mechanisms. These secondary injury mechanisms include ischemia, interstitial and cellular ionic imbalance, free radical formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and generation of arachidonic acid metabolites. Although little can be done from a therapeutic standpoint to correct damage sustained during the primary injury, by mitigating the evolution of secondary injury events there is opportunity to preserve remnant viable neurological tissue and improve neurologic outcomes. There is convincing evidence from the preclinical realm that the pharmacologic agent riluzole attenuates certain aspects of the secondary injury cascade leading to diminished neurological tissue destruction in animal SCI models. Riluzole, a sodium channel blocking benzothiazole anticonvulsant, specifically exerts its neuroprotective effect by helping to maintain neuronal cellular ionic balance and by reducing the release of excitotoxic glutamate in the post-SCI setting. Several preclinical studies in the rodent SCI model have associated administration of riluzole with increased neural tissue preservation at the site of injury, in addition to improved behavioral outcomes, in comparison to administration of placebo or other sodium channel blocking drugs. In the clinical realm, while riluzole has not been studied extensively in the context of SCI, it has been widely used in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 2007 Cochrane review, summarizing the findings of 4 placebo-controlled randomized trials, concluded that at a dose of 100 mg daily, riluzole is safe and improves median survival by 2-3 months in patients with ALS. In regards to adverse events (AEs), riluzole was well tolerated, although treated patients were 2.6 times more likely to experience a three-fold increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) as compared to patients treated with placebo. However, this effect was found to be uniformly reversible with cessation of riluzole therapy and was only reported after several months of medication administration. Recently, the clinical safety and pharmacokinetic profile of riluzole have been studied in a multi-center pilot study in the context of traumatic SCI. A total of 36 patients received an oral dose of riluzole 50 mg twice daily for 2 weeks, with treatment initiated within 12 hours of injury for all patients. The 12 hour dosing window, as well as the 2 week duration of therapy, was chosen to match the period of medication administration to the known period of glutamatergic excitotoxicity after SCI (several minutes after injury until 2 weeks after injury). With the final analysis currently undergoing peer review, completion of this study has confirmed the acceptable safety profile of riluzole administration previously documented in the ALS literature, and has established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale efficacy trial investigating this therapy.
At present, there is no specific pharmacological therapy that is given uniformly to all patients with traumatic SCI. As a result, a placebo-controlled comparison group is ethical and justifiable.
The aim of the current trial is to evaluate efficacy and safety of riluzole in the treatment of patients with acute SCI. The primary objective of the current Phase II/III trial is to evaluate the superiority of riluzole, at a dose of 2 x 100 mg the first 24 hours followed by 2 x 50 mg for the following 13 days after injury, as compared to placebo, in change between 180 days and baseline in motor outcomes as measured by International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Examination (ISNCSCI) Motor Score, in patients with acute traumatic SCI, presenting to the hospital less than 12 hours after injury.
Who is eligible to participate?
- Age between 18 and 75 years inclusive
- Able to cooperate in the completion of a standardized neurological examination by ISNCSCI standards (includes patients who are on a ventilator)
- Willing and able to comply with the study Protocol
- Signed Informed Consent Document (ICD) by patient, legal representative or witness
- Able to receive the Investigational Drug within 12 hours of injury
- ISNCSCI Impairment Scale Grade "A," "B" or "C" based upon first ISNCSCI evaluation after arrival to the hospital
- Neurological Level of Injury between C4-C8 based upon first ISNCSCI evaluation after arrival to the hospital
- Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) pregnancy test or a negative urine pregnancy test
- Injury arising from penetrating mechanism
- Significant concomitant head injury defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score < 14 with a clinically significant abnormality on a head CT (head CT required only for patients suspected to have a brain injury at the discretion of the investigator)
- Pre-existent neurologic or mental disorder which would preclude accurate evaluation and follow-up (i.e. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, unstable psychiatric disorder with hallucinations and/or delusions or schizophrenia)
- Previous history of spinal cord injury
- Recent history (less than 1 year) of chemical substance dependency or significant psychosocial disturbance that may impact the outcome or study participation, in the opinion of the investigator
- Is a prisoner
- Participation in a clinical trial of another Investigational Drug or Investigational Device within the past 30 days
- Hypersensitivity to riluzole or any of its components
- Neutropenia measured as absolute neutrophil count (ANC) measured in cells per microliter of blood of < 1500 at screening visit
- Creatinine level of > 1.2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dL) in males or > 1.1 mg per dL in females at screening visit
- Liver enzymes (ALT/SGPT or AST/SGOT) 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) at screening visit
- Active liver disease or clinical jaundice
- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex
- Active malignancy or history of invasive malignancy within the last five years, with the exception of superficial basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has been definitely treated. Patients with carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix treated definitely more than 1 year prior to enrollment may enter the study
- Lactating at screening visit
- Subject is currently using, and will continue to use for the next 14 days any of the following medications which are classified as CYP1A2 inhibitors or inducers*:
- Oral contraceptives
- Note: no washout period required; if these medications are discontinued, subjects are eligible to be enrolled in the trial