Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Cardiology (Minnesota)


Students in this elective are assigned to both the inpatient and outpatient pediatric cardiology teams under the direct supervision of a staff pediatric cardiologist. Most often, there will be pediatric cardiology fellows involved in the same educational experiences or helping to provide the experience.

The rotation typically consists of rounding with the inpatient team in the morning, followed by a variety of experiences in the afternoon catered to students' interests and the areas where there is the most activity.

A minimum of two weeks of afternoons should be spent in the general pediatric cardiology clinic, as this is an area of highest yield for students. Other afternoon experiences may include time in the echocardiography lab, electrophysiology lab, cardiac catheterization suite, heart transplant clinic, pathology lab, cardiac MRI suite and other areas.

Specific goals

  1. Become familiar with the clinical manifestations and course of patients with congenital cardiac defects by being involved in their history taking and physical examination
  2. Discuss basic diagnostic modalities in pediatric cardiology
  3. Observe echocardiography, exercise stress testing, and hemodynamic and electrophysiological catheterization

Activity outline

Students are expected to participate in morning rounds on the hospital service. The fellows will help the students select patients of interest to take ownership of — the student will pre-round on these patients daily and give a presentation of their daily course, history, physical examination and reports from consulting services.

The afternoons are primarily an observational experience, but roles are tailored to students' specific interests as much as possible. When involved in the outpatient clinical setting, students are expected to see patients before the consultant whenever possible, as well as join the consultant in discussing the patient's history and findings and planning any testing or observation. This may include interpretation of chest radiographs, electrocardiograms and echocardiograms.

The spectrum of cardiac disorders evaluated in pediatric cardiology includes simple and extremely complex cardiac malformations, as well as patients with functional cardiac murmurs, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, arrhythmia, chest pain and syncope.

Conference schedule


  • 6:45 a.m. — ECG and electrophysiology conference (second through fourth Mondays of the month)
  • 7 a.m. — Surgical conference (first Monday of the month)
  • 7:30-8:30 a.m. — Pediatric cardiology sign-out rounds (every Monday)


  • 7-8 a.m. — Pediatric case conference


  • 7:30 a.m. — Discuss with fellow on service about any conferences (several are held but change regularly)


  • 7:30-8:30 a.m. — Congenital Heart Center Grand Rounds (core conference)


  • 7-7:45 a.m. — Echo conference and exercise conference
  • 7:45-8:30 a.m. — Pediatric Grand Rounds

Method of evaluation

Evaluation is performed using personal feedback and Integrated Scheduling and Evaluation System (ISES) evaluations. There is a pre- and post-test available that may be recommended as well.

March 08, 2013