The first two years of your clinical training are spent in core rotations, where you obtain the basic knowledge and technical skills necessary to proceed to more advanced training in a subspecialty area. These years include rotations through the various subspecialty laboratories and both inpatient and outpatient clinical arenas.

During the second and third years, fellows have six months of dedicated research time. Fellows are allowed to use this time to pursue elective clinical rotations provided they demonstrate continued progress with their research endeavors.

Rotation schedule

The core rotation areas are:

Rotation Length
Hospital service 2 months each year
Heart transplant and advanced heart failure service 1 month each year
Echocardiography Minimum of 6 months
Electrophysiology Minimum of 3 months
Cardiac catheterization Minimum of 6 months
Nuclear cardiology Minimum of 3 months
Advanced cardiac imaging Minimum of 3 months
Outpatient continuity clinic 1 half day each week
Electrocardiography Minimum of 3,500 ECGs over 3 years

Rotation descriptions

Hospital service

You supervise the team of residents, interns, medical students and nurse practitioners with different attending physicians each week.

Heart transplant and advanced heart failure service

Along with registered nurse coordinators and an advanced registered nurse practitioner, you supervise the service with oversight by a transplant cardiologist and, in the first year of fellowship, an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiology fellow.


During your first and second year of training, the first three to four months of echocardiography training are exclusively in the outpatient setting. Thereafter, this rotation incorporates work in the hospital setting, once fellows have met specified milestones in the performance and interpretation of transthoracic echocardiography.

In the hospital setting, fellows gain experience with transesophageal and stress echocardiography.


This rotation includes inpatient and outpatient consultation, invasive electrophysiology, defibrillator and permanent pacemaker insertions, ambulatory ECG interpretation, and implantable device interrogation and programming.

Cardiac catheterization

You train in state-of-the-art labs with experienced interventional cardiologists. The lab is engaged in the full spectrum of diagnostic angiography, hemodynamic assessment, coronary artery interventions, endomyocardial biopsies, structural interventions and peripheral arterial interventions.

Nuclear cardiology

During this rotation, you interpret a large volume of myocardial perfusion imaging studies and occasional MUGA scans. You are exposed to principles of radioisotope preparation, dosimetry and safety.

This rotation is combined with the advanced cardiac imaging rotation.

Advanced cardiac imaging

During this rotation, you are introduced to radiologic principles including instrumentation, image acquisition and processing, and interpretation of cardiac magnetic resonance images and cardiac computerized tomographic images.

You work with radiologists and cardiologists. These specialists have specific expertise in advanced cardiac imaging and collaborate in performing, analyzing and interpreting studies.

This rotation is combined with the nuclear cardiology rotation.

Outpatient continuity clinic

On average, you see four to six patients per half-day clinic. You are supervised by a staff cardiologist.


The minimum exposure is 3,500 ECGs over three years.


Opportunities are available in your area of interest, along with certain rotations at Mayo Clinic's campuses in Rochester, Minnesota, and Phoenix/Scottsdale, Arizona.

Didactic training

During the Cardiovascular Diseases Fellowship, you participate in a variety of lectures and conferences that include:

  • Weekly core curriculum lectures
  • Weekly heart failure conference
  • Weekly echo conference
  • Weekly cardiac transplant selection conference
  • Weekly cardiac pathology conference
  • Monthly clinical cardiology conference
  • Monthly cath conference
  • Monthly journal club
  • Monthly cardiology grand rounds
  • Monthly advanced cardiac imaging conference
  • Monthly research conference

The program provides funding for registration and travel expenses for attendance at one domestic cardiology meeting of your choice, with approval from the program director.

Research training

You have the opportunity to spend a total of six months dedicated to research. A certain block of academic time is devoted to research. The program funds your participation in national and regional meetings at which your research is presented, upon program director approval.

Publication of research in peer-reviewed journals is encouraged. Production of a manuscript deemed worthy of publication by your research mentor is required for graduation.

Call frequency

Your call schedule varies by individual rotation. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science follows the duty-hour recommendations of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.


Intramural and extramural moonlighting is allowed on a case-by-case basis, subject to program director approval. Moonlighting hours must be counted toward duty hours, and moonlighting activities cannot interfere with fellow education or clinical obligations.

Nov. 05, 2015