This advanced course provides the clinician and advanced sonographer with an update on transthoracic, stress, and transesophageal echocardiography as well as cardiac CT and MRI. It is not a "how-to" course, but instead concentrates on the application of these modalities to clinical decision-making. The program consists primarily of clinical cases that illustrate problems cardiovascular specialists commonly encounter. Multiple-choice questions addressing the clinical utility and limitations of echocardiography follow each case. In addition, faculty presents rapid fire and unknown cases. The audience is also encouraged to bring unknown cases to show during the sessions. Special breakout sessions are devoted to the interpretation of Doppler hemodynamics, diastolic function, stress echocardiography, congenital heart disease, and interventional and perioperative echocardiography. This course is designed to encourage maximum audience participation and interaction with the faculty.