This advanced course is designed to provide the clinician with an update on two-dimensional, Doppler, stress, and transesophageal echocardiography. It is not a "how-to" course, but instead will concentrate on the application of echocardiography in clinical decision making. The program consists primarily of clinical cases which illustrate the problems cardiologists commonly encounter. Multiple choice questions addressing the clinical utility and limitations of echocardiography follow each case. In addition, faculty present "rapid fire" and unknown cases. The audience is also encouraged to bring unknown cases which will be shown during a special session. Special breakout sessions are devoted to the interpretation of Doppler hemodynamics, diastolic function, stress echocardiography, congenital heart disease, interventional and perioperative echocardiography. This course is designed to encourage maximum audience participation and interaction with the faculty.